Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Brake system and steering wheel repair guide for plymouth Voyager Sport 3.3


Plymouth Brake And Steering Wheel




Brake Drum REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

  1. Raise and support the rear of the vehicle on jackstands.
  2. Remove the wheels and tire assemblies.
  3. Remove the brake shoe adjusting slot cover from the rear of backing plate.
  4. Insert a thin tool through the adjusting slot and hold the adjusting lever away from the star wheel.
  5. Insert an adjusting tool and back off the star wheel by prying downward with the tool.
  6. Remove the center hub dust cover, nut, washer, brake drum, hub and wheel bearings.

See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10
Front Wheel Drive Vehicles


Brake Drum Removal On Plymouth

 Fig. 1: Removing the rear drum adjusting hole cover plug


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 Fig. 2: Backing off the adjuster star wheel


Axle Stub Cover Removal

Fig. Fig. 3: Removing the dust cover from the axle stub


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Fig. Fig. 4: Removing the dust cover the washer from the axle stub


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Fig. Fig. 5: Removing the cotter pin from the axle stub nut


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Fig. Fig. 6: Removing the nut lock from the axle stub


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Fig. Fig. 7: Removing the nut from the axle stub


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Fig. Fig. 8: Removing the washer from the axle stub


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Fig. Fig. 9: Removing the bearing from the axle stub


Brake Drum Removal

Fig. Fig. 10: All of these parts must be removed to remove the rear brake drum

To install:
  1. Inspect the brake lining and drum for wear.
  2. Inspect the wheel cylinder for leakage. Service as required.
  3. Remove, clean, inspect and repack the wheel bearings.
  4. Install the brake drum and tighten the hub nut to 20-25 ft. lbs. (27-34 Nm), then back off the nut until bearing pressure is released.
  5. Retighten the nut finger tight, align the cotter pin hole and install the cotter pin.
  6. Adjust the rear brakes as described in the beginning of this section.
The rear hub and bearing does not come off with the brake drum on all wheel drive models

INSPECTION



Check the brake drum for any cracks, scores, grooves, or an out-of-round condition. Slight scores can be removed with emory cloth, while extensive scoring or grooves will require machining. Have an automotive machine shop measure the wear and check the drum for run out. The shop will be able to turn the drum on a lathe, if necessary. Never have a drum turned more than 0.060 in. (1.5mm). If the drum is cracked, or worn more than the limit, replace.

WHEEL CYLINDERS:------------

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Removing the wheel cylinder from the backing plate
  1. Raise the rear of the vehicle and support it safely with jackstands.


CAUTION
On models equipped with ABS, the system pressure must be released before disconnecting any of the hydraulic lines. Failure to do so, can cause personal injury.

  1. Remove the brake drums as previously outlined.
  2. Visually inspect the wheel cylinder boots for signs of excessive leakage. Replace any boots that are torn or broken.

A slight amount of fluid on the boots may not be a leak but may be a preservative fluid used at the factory.
  1. If a leak has been discovered, remove the brake shoes and check for contamination. Replace the linings if they are soaked with grease or brake fluid.
  2. Disconnect the brake line from the wheel cylinder.
  3. Remove the wheel cylinder attaching bolts, then pull the wheel cylinder out of its support.

To install:
  1. Position the wheel cylinder onto the backing plate and loosely install the mounting bolts.
  2. Start the brake line into the cylinder.
  3. Tighten the mounting bolts and the brake line.
  4. Install the brake shoes and brake drum.
  5. Adjust the brake shoes.
  6. Bleed the brake system.

OVERHAUL



See Figure 2
image

Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the wheel cylinder assembly
  1. Pry the boots away from the cylinder and remove the boots and pistons.
  2. Disengage the boot from the piston.
  3. Slide the piston into the cylinder bore and press inward to remove the other boot, piston and spring.
  4. Wash all parts (except rubber parts) in clean brake fluid thoroughly. Do not use a rag; lint will adhere to the bore.
  5. Inspect the cylinder bores. Light scoring can usually be cleaned up with crocus cloth. Heavier scores can be cleaned up with a cylinder hone. Black stains are caused by the piston cups and are no cause of concern. Bad scoring or pitting means that the wheel cylinder should be replaced.
  6. Dip the pistons and new cups in clean brake fluid, or apply lubricant that is sometimes packaged in the rebuilding kit prior to assembly.

To install:
  1. Coat the wheel cylinder bore with clean brake fluid.
  2. Install the expansion spring with the cup expanders.
  3. Install the cups in each end of the cylinder with the open ends facing each other.
  4. Assemble new boots on the piston and slide them into the cylinder bore.
  5. Press the boot over the wheel cylinder until seated.
  6. Apply RTV on the mounting surface of the backing plate.
  7. Install the wheel cylinder, and connect brake lines.
  8. Install brake shoes, and drum.
  9. Adjust and bleed brakes.

BRAKE DISC ROTOR:----

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1 and 2


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Removing the rotor retaining clip from the wheel stud


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Fig. Fig. 2: Removing the rotor from the studs
  1. Loosen the wheel lugs slightly.
  2. Raise and support the front of the vehicle on jackstands.
  3. Remove the front wheel and tire assembly.
  4. Relieve the brake system pressure if equipped with ABS.
  5. Remove the disc brake caliper and outer brake pad.
  6. Remove the disc brake rotor.

To install:
  1. Service as necessary.
  2. Place the rotor in position and install the caliper assembly. Refer to the brake pad removal and installation procedures for detailed information, if necessary.

INSPECTION



If excessive run-out, wobble or thickness variation is present, feedback through the brake pedal will be felt when the brakes are applied. Pedal pulsation, chatter, surge and increased pedal travel can be caused when the disc rotor is worn unevenly or deeply scored. Remove the rotor and have an automotive machine shop measure the wear and check for run out. The machine shop can refinish the braking surfaces if replacement is not necessary.

BRAKE HOSES:----
See Figures 1 and 2


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Proper nut thread size and tube routing-non ABS equipped vehicles


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Fig. Fig. 2: Brake line routing-non ABS vehicles

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Right and left brake hoses are not interchangeable.
  1. Remove the connector at the caliper.
  2. Remove the mounting bracket from the strut support.
  3. Remove the upper keyed end from the upper body mount and disconnect the hose from the steel line.
  4. Always use a flare wrench to prevent rounding of the line fittings.

To install:
  1. Install the new hose to the caliper first. Always use a new copper washer after making sure the mounting surfaces are clean. Tighten the caliper hose fitting.
  2. Install the strut bracket, then attach the steel line fitting.
  3. Position the upper keyed end of the hose to the body bracket and secure it.
  4. Rear brake hoses should be attached first to the trailing arm bracket and the to the floor pan tubes.
  5. Keep the hose as straight as possible, avoid twisting.
  6. Bleed the brake system.

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STEERING KNUCKLE:----

The front suspension steering knuckle provides for steering, braking and front end alignment while supporting the front driving hub and axle assembly.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Steering knuckle assembly


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Fig. Fig. 2: Remove the cotter pin, hub nut lock and spring washer


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Fig. Fig. 3: Disconnect the tie rod end


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Fig. Fig. 4: Separate the ball ball joint stud from the knuckle assembly


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Fig. Fig. 5: Remove/install the steering knuckle from the strut assembly


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Fig. Fig. 6: Install the spring washer, nut lock and cotter pin
A tie rod end puller (Chrysler Tool C-3894A or equivalent) is necessary for this procedure.
  1. Remove the wheel cover, center hub cover, cotter pin, nut lock and spring washer from the front wheel.
  2. Loosen the front hub nut and wheel lug nuts. Raise the front of the vehicle and support on jackstands.
  3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly. Remove the center hub nut.
  4. Disconnect the tie rod end from the steering knuckle arm with Tool C-3894A, or equivalent. Disconnect the front brake hose bracket from the strut.
  5. Remove the caliper assembly and support it with a piece of wire. Do not permit the caliper to hang from the brake hose. Remove the disc brake rotor, inner pad and caliper mounting adapter.
  6. Remove the clamp bolt that secures the ball joint and steering knuckle together.
  7. Insure that the splined halfshaft is loose in the hub by tapping lightly with a brass drift and hammer. Separate the ball joint and steering knuckle. Pull the knuckle assembly out and away from the halfshaft. Remove the steering knuckle from the strut assembly.

To install:
  1. Service hub, bearing, seal and steering knuckle as necessary.
  2. Install the steering knuckle to the strut assembly. Install the halfshaft through the hub and steering knuckle. Connect the ball joint to the knuckle, then tighten the clamp bolt to 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm) on 1984-89 models or to 105 ft. lbs (143 Nm) on 1990-95 models.
  3. Install the tie rod end, then tighten the retaining nut to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm). Install and bend the cotter pin.
  4. Install the brake adapter, pads, rotor and caliper. Connect the brake hose bracket to the strut.
  5. Install the center hub washer and retaining nut. Have an assistant apply the brakes while you tighten the nut to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm).
  6. Install the spring washer, nut and new cotter pin.
  7. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
  8. Tighten the lug nuts to 95 ft. lbs. (130 Nm).
  9. Lower the vehicle.
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FRONT HUB AND BEARING:---

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Press In Type
See Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6


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Fig. Fig. 1: Separating the ball stud from the knuckle


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Fig. Fig. 2: Removing the hub from the knuckle


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Fig. Fig. 3: Removing the outer bearing race


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Fig. Fig. 4: Removing the bearing from the knuckle


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Fig. Fig. 5: Installing the bearing in the knuckle


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Fig. Fig. 6: Installing the hub assembly
All 1984-88 models and some 1989-90 eight passenger models use the press-in type front hub and bearing. A special set of tools, C-4811 or the equivalent, is required to remove and install the hub and bearing. If the special tool is not on hand, remove the steering knuckle and take it to an automotive machine shop for bearing replacement.
  1. Remove the cotter pin, nut lock and spring from the front halfshaft hub nut. Loosen the hub nut. Loosen the wheel lug nuts slightly.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle on jackstands.
  3. Remove the wheel assembly.
  4. Remove the center hub nut.
  5. Disconnect the tie rod end from the steering arm.
  6. Disconnect the brake hose from the strut retainer.
  7. Remove the ball joint clamp nut.
  8. Remove the brake caliper, suspend it with wire so that no strain is put on the brake hose. Remove the disc rotor.
  9. Separate the knuckle from the control arm ball joint.
  10. Pull the knuckle from the halfshaft. Tap the halfshaft with a brass hammer to loosen it if necessary. Use care so that the inner CV-joint does not separate. Support the halfshaft.
  11. Using tool C-4811, or equivalent. Back out one of the bearings and install the tool adapter bolt into the retainer threads.
  12. Position the tool at the back of the knuckle and install two mounting bolts in the brake caliper mounting holes. Center the tool, then tighten the caliper adapter mounting bolts and the retainer bolt.
  13. Tighten the center threaded driver on the tool and push the hub from the knuckle.
  14. Remove the tool from the front side of the knuckle. Carefully pry the grease seal from the knuckle. Press the bearing from the knuckle using tool C-4811, or equivalent.

To install:
  1. Install a new bearing by using the puller adapter of tool C-4811. Install a new seal and lubricate. Install the bearing retainer and bolts, tighten the bolts to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
  2. Press the hub into the bearing. Install a new wear/wipe seal. Install the halfshaft. Attach the ball joint and tie rod end. Install the brake rotor and caliper. Secure the brake hose. Tighten the clamp bolt to 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm). Tighten the tie rod end nut to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
  3. Install the washer and hub nut. Tighten the nut firmly. Install the wheel assemblies, then tighten the lug nuts firmly.
  4. Lower the vehicle. Tighten the center hub nut to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm). Tighten the wheel lugs to 95 ft. lbs. (130 Nm).

Bolt-In Type
See Figure 7


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 7: Separating the ball stud from the knuckle
On some 1989-90 eight-passenger model vehicles and all 1991-95 models, a bolt in knuckle bearing is used. The bearing unit is serviced as a complete assembly. The unit is attached to the steering knuckle by four mounting bolts that are removed through a provided access hole in the hub flange.
  1. Loosen the center splined retaining hub nut while the vehicle is on the ground. Loosen the wheel lug nuts slightly.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle on jackstands.
  3. Remove the wheel assembly. Remove the hub nut and washer.
  4. Disconnect the tie rod end from the steering arm and the clamp bolt that retains the ball joint to the knuckle.
  5. Remove the disc brake caliper and suspend it with wire so that there is no strain on the brake hose. Remove the rotor.
  6. Separate the knuckle from the ball joint. Pull the knuckle assembly away from the halfshaft. Take care not separate the halfshaft inner CV-joint. Support the halfshaft.
  7. Remove the four hub and bearing retaining bolts. Remove the assembly.

To install:
  1. Install the new bearing assembly, then tighten the mounting bolts in a crisscross manner to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm).
  2. Install a new wear sleeve seal. Lubricate the sealing surfaces with multi-purpose grease. Install the halfshaft through the hub.
  3. Install the steering knuckle onto the lower control arm. Tighten the clamp bolt to 70 ft. lbs. (95 Nm) on 1984-89 models or to 105 ft. lbs. (143 Nm) on 1990-91 models.
  4. Install the tie rod end. Tighten the nut to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm). Install the brake disc rotor and caliper assembly.
  5. Install and tighten the hub nut reasonably tight. Install the wheel assembly, tighten the lug nuts fairly tight.
  6. Lower the vehicle, then tighten the hub nut to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm) and the wheel lugs to 95 ft. lbs. (130 Nm).

-----------------
REAR WHEEL BEARING:----

SERVICING



Sodium-based grease is not compatible with lithium-based grease. Read the package labels and be careful not to mix the two types. If there is any doubt as to the type of grease used, completely clean the old grease from the bearing and hub before replacing.
Before handling the bearings, there are a few things that you should remember to do and not to do.
Remember to DO the following:


Remove all outside dirt from the housing before exposing the bearing.
Treat a used bearing as gently as you would a new one.
Work with clean tools in clean surroundings.
Use clean, dry canvas gloves, or at least clean, dry hands.
Clean solvents and flushing fluids are a must.
Use clean paper when laying out the bearings to dry.
Protect disassembled bearings from rust and dirt. Cover them up.
Use clean rags to wipe bearings.
Keep the bearings in oil-proof paper when they are to be stored or are not in use.
Clean the inside of the housing before replacing the bearing.Do NOT do the following:
Don't work in dirty surroundings.
Don't use dirty, chipped or damaged tools.
Try not to work on wooden work benches or use wooden mallets.
Don't handle bearings with dirty or moist hands.
Do not use gasoline for cleaning; use a safe solvent.
Do not spin-dry bearings with compressed air. They will be damaged.
Do not spin dirty bearings.
Avoid using cotton waste or dirty cloths to wipe bearings.
Try not to scratch or nick bearing surfaces.
Do not allow the bearing to come in contact with dirt or rust at any time.

The rear wheel bearings should be inspected and lubricated whenever the rear brakes are serviced or at least every 30,000 miles. Repack the bearings with high temperature multi-purpose grease.
Check the lubricant to see if it is contaminated. If it contains dirt or has a milky appearance indicating the presence of water, the bearings should be cleaned and repacked.
Clean the bearings in kerosene, mineral spirits or other suitable cleaning fluid. Do not dry them by spinning the bearings. Allow them to air dry.
Front Wheel Drive Models
See Figure 1


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Rear brake drum and bearings-front wheel drive models
  1. Raise and support the vehicle with the rear wheels off the floor.
  2. Remove the wheel grease cap, cotter pin, nut-lock and bearing adjusting nut.
  3. Remove the thrust washer and bearing.
  4. Remove the drum from the spindle.
  5. Thoroughly clean the old lubricant from the bearings and hub cavity. Inspect the bearing rollers for pitting or other signs of wear. Light discoloration is normal.

To install:
  1. Repack the bearings with high temperature multi-purpose EP grease and add a small amount of new grease to the hub cavity. Be sure to force the lubricant between all rollers in the bearing.
  2. Install the drum on the spindle after coating the polished spindle surfaces with wheel bearing lubricant.
  3. Install the outer bearing cone, thrust washer and adjusting nut.
  4. Tighten the adjusting nut to 20-25 ft. lbs. (27-34 Nm) while rotating the wheel.
  5. Back off the adjusting nut to completely release the preload from the bearing.
  6. Tighten the adjusting nut finger-tight.
  7. Position the nut-lock with one pair of slots in line with the cotter pin hole. Install the cotter pin.
  8. Clean and install the grease cap and wheel.
  9. Lower the vehicle.

All Wheel Drive Vehicles
See Figures 2, 3, 4, and 5


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Fig. Fig. 2: Hub nut assembly-(AWD models)


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Fig. Fig. 3: Half shaft flange retaining bolts-(AWD models)


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Fig. Fig. 4: Half shaft removal-(AWD models)


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Fig. Fig. 5: Pull the wheel bearing assembly from the housing-(AWD models)
The rear wheel bearings used on these models is a bolt in type unit, this is the same unit that is used on the front knuckle assembly.
  1. Raise and support the vehicle.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  3. Remove the halfshaft flange retaining bolts and remove the halfshaft assembly.
  4. Remove the wheel bearing mounting bolts and remove the wheel bearing and hub assembly.

To install:
  1. Install the hub and bearing assembly, tighten the bolts to 96 ft. lbs (130 Nm) in a crisscross pattern.

Thoroughly clean the seal and wear sleeve, lubricate both before installation.
  1. Install the halfshaft.
  2. Install the washer and hub nut, with the brakes applied tighten the nut to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm).
  3. Install the spring washer, nut lock and new cotter pin.
  4. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
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REAR SPRING REMOVAL:----

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Front Wheel Drive Models
See Figures 1 and 2
  1. Raise and support the rear of the vehicle on jackstands. Locate the jackstands under the frame contact points just ahead of the rear spring fixed ends.
  2. Raise the rear axle just enough to relieve the weight on the springs and support on jackstands.
  3. Disconnect the rear brake proportioning valve spring. Disconnect the lower ends of the shock absorbers at the rear axle bracket.
  4. Loosen and remove the nuts from the U-bolts. Remove the washer and U-bolts.
  5. Lower the rear axle assembly to permit the rear springs to hang free. Support the spring and remove the four bolts that mount the fixed end spring bracket. Remove the rear spring shackle nuts and plate. Remove the shackle from the spring.
  6. Remove the spring. Remove the fixed end mounting bolts from the bracket and remove the bracket. Remove the front pivot bolt from the front spring hanger.

To install:
  1. Install the spring on the rear shackle and hanger. Start the shackle nuts but do not completely tighten.
  2. Assembly the front spring hanger on the spring. Raise the front of the spring and install the four mounting bolts. Tighten the mounting bolts to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm).
  3. Raise the axle assembly and align the spring center bolts in correct position. Install the mounting U-bolts. Tighten the nuts to 60 ft. lbs. (82 Nm).
  4. Install the rear shock absorber to the lower brackets.
  5. Lower the vehicle to the ground so that the full weight is on the springs. Tighten the mounting components as follows: Front fixed end bolt, 95 ft. lbs. (130 Nm); Shackle nuts, 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm); Shock absorber bolts, 50 ft. lbs. (68 Nm).
  6. Raise and support the vehicle. Connect the brake valve spring and adjust the valve.

All Wheel Drive Models
  1. Raise and support the rear of the vehicle on jackstands. Locate the jackstands under the chassis, ahead of the springs.
  2. Raise the rear axle just enough to relieve the weight on the springs and support on jackstands.
  3. Disconnect the rear brake proportioning valve spring. Disconnect the lower ends of the shock absorbers at the rear axle bracket.
  4. Loosen and remove the nuts from the U-bolts. Remove the washer and U-bolts.
  5. Lower the rear axle assembly to permit the rear springs to hang free. Support the spring and remove the four bolts that mount the fixed end spring bracket. Remove the rear spring shackle nuts and plate. Remove the shackle from the spring.
  6. Remove the spring. Remove the fixed end mounting bolts from the bracket and remove the bracket. Remove the front pivot bolt from the front spring hanger.
  7. Separate the rear shackle plate from the shackle and pin assembly. Remove the shackle and pin assembly from the spring.

To install:
  1. Assemble the shackle and pin assembly, bushing and shackle plate on rear of spring and spring hanger. Start the shackle and pin assembly through bolts, do not tighten.
  2. Assemble the front spring hanger to the front of the spring eye and install pivot bolt and nut. Do not tighten.

Pivot bolt must installed inboard to prevent structural damage during spring installation.
  1. Raise the front of the spring into position and install the 4 hanger bolts, tighten them to 45 ft. lbs. (61 Nm). Connect the actuator assembly for the proportioning valve.
  2. Raise the axle assembly into position, centered under the spring center bolt.
  3. Install the U-bolts, nuts and washers. Tighten the U-bolt nuts to 65 ft. lbs. (88 Nm).
  4. Install the shock absorbers and start the bolts.
  5. Lower the vehicle to the ground, with the full weight of the vehicle on the wheels. Tighten all of the fasteners in the following sequence and to the listed values:
    1. Front pivot bolts-105 ft. lbs. (143 Nm)
    2. Shackle and pin assembly through-bolt nuts-35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm)
    3. Shackle and pin assembly retaining bolts-35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm)
    4. Shock absorber upper bolts-85 ft. lbs. (116 Nm)
    5. Shock absorber lower bolts-80 ft. lbs. (109 Nm)

  6. Raise the vehicle and connect the rear brake proportioning valve spring.



Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 1: Rear suspension components-


Click image to see an enlarged view
Fig. Fig. 2: Rear suspension components- (Except AWD models)





WHEEL ASSEMBLY INSPECTION AND REMOVAL:--------

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



  1. Apply the parking brake and block the opposite wheel.
  2. If equipped with an automatic transaxle, place the selector lever in P ; with a manual transaxle, place the shifter in Reverse.
  3. If equipped, remove the wheel cover or hub cap.
  4. Break loose the lug nuts. If a nut is stuck, never use heat to loosen it or damage to the wheel and bearings may occur. If the nuts are seized, one or two heavy hammer blows directly on the end of the bolt head usually loosens the rust. Be careful as continued pounding will likely damage the brake drum or rotor.
  5. Raise the vehicle until the tire is clear of the ground. Support the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  6. Remove the lug nuts, then remove the tire and wheel assembly.

To install:
  1. Make sure the wheel and hub mating surfaces as well as the wheel lug studs are clean and free of all foreign material. Always remove rust from the wheel mounting surfaces and the brake rotors/drums. Failure to do so may cause the lug nuts to loosen in service.
  2. Position the wheel on the hub or drum and hand-tighten the lug nuts. Tighten all the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, until they are snug.
  3. Remove the supports and lower the vehicle. Tighten the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern to 95 ft. lbs. (130 Nm). Always use a torque wrench to achieve the proper lug nut torque and to prevent stretching the wheel studs.
  4. Repeat the torque pattern to assure proper wheel tightening.
  5. If equipped, install the hub cab or wheel cover.

INSPECTION



Check the wheels for any damage. They must be replaced if they are bent, dented, heavily rusted, have elongated bolt holes, or have excessive lateral or radial runout. Wheels with excessive runout may cause a high-speed vehicle vibration.
Replacement wheels must be of the same load capacity, diameter, width, offset and mounting configuration as the original wheels. Using the wrong wheels may affect wheel bearing life, ground and tire clearance, or speedometer and odometer calibrations.