Monday, March 21, 2011

How to replace starter on 1994 Nissan pick up?

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1 and 2

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable at the battery, then disconnect the positive battery cable at the starter.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Starter removal on 4WD-6-cylinder engine



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Fig. Fig. 2: Starter removal on 2WD-6-cylinder engine

  1. On 4wd models with the 6-cylinder engine:
    1. Remove the front gravel shield.
    2. Detach the oil pressure switch connector.
    3. Drain the engine oil and remove the oil filter.



CAUTION
The EPA warns that prolonged contact with used engine oil may cause a number of skin disorders, including cancer! You should make every effort to minimize your exposure to used engine oil. Protective gloves should be worn when changing the oil. Wash your hands and any other exposed skin areas as soon as possible after exposure to used engine oil. Soap and water, or waterless hand cleaner should be used.

  1. On 2wd models with the 6-cylinder engine:
    1. Remove the front right wheel.
    2. Remove the front gravel shield.
    3. Remove the exhaust manifold heat insulator.
    4. Remove the exhaust manifold.
    5. Detach the oil pressure switch connector.

  2. Unfasten the remaining electrical connections at the starter solenoid.
  3. Remove the two nuts holding the starter to the bell housing, then pull the starter toward the front of the vehicle and out.

To install:
  1. Insert the starter into the bell housing, being sure that the starter drive is not jammed against the flywheel.
  2. Tighten the attaching nuts and secure all electrical connections to the starter assembly.
  3. Install all remaining components in reverse order of removal.
  4. Reconnect the battery cables. If applicable, refill and check the oil level. Check the starter assembly for proper operation.

OVERHAUL



See Figures 3 through 10

Solenoid Replacement
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Unscrew the two solenoid switch (magnetic switch) retaining screws.
  3. Remove the solenoid. In order to unhook the solenoid from the starter drive lever, lift it up at the same time that you are pulling it out of the starter housing.
  4. Installation is in the reverse order of removal. Make sure that the solenoid switch is properly engaged with the drive lever before tightening the mounting screws.



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Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of S114-516 type starter-1989-91 models



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Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of S114-605, 606B, 607 and 608SA type starters-1989-95 models



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Fig. Fig. 5: Exploded view of M3T38482 type starter-1989-95 models



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Fig. Fig. 6: Exploded view of S114-453 and 454 type starters-1989-91 models



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Fig. Fig. 7: Exploded view of S114-527A type starter-1989-95 models



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Fig. Fig. 8: Exploded view of M1T60281 type starter-1989-95 models



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Fig. Fig. 9: Exploded view of S114-703A type starter-1989-95 models

Brush Replacement
NON-REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Remove the solenoid (magnetic switch).
  3. Unfasten the two end frame cap mounting bolts and remove the end frame cap.
  4. Remove the O-ring and lock plate from the armature shaft groove, then slide the shims off the shaft.
  5. Unfasten the two long housing screws (at the front of the starter) and carefully pull off the end plate.
  6. Using a screwdriver, separate the brushes from the brush holder.
  7. Slide the brush holder off of the armature shaft.
  8. Crush the old brushes off of the copper braid and file away any remaining solder.
  9. Fit the new brushes to the braid and spread the braid slightly.

Use a soldering iron of at least 250 watts.

  1. Using a light-grade solder, solder the brush to the braid. Grip the copper braid with flat pliers to prevent the solder from flowing down its length.
  2. File off any extra solder and then repeat the procedure for the remaining three brushes.
  3. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.

When installing the brush holder, make sure that the brushes line up properly.

REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter and the solenoid.
  2. Remove the through-bolts and the rear cover. The rear cover can be pried off with a small prytool, but be careful not to damage the O-ring.
  3. Separate the starter housing, armature, and brush holder from the center housing. They can be removed as an assembly.
  4. Remove the positive side brush from its holder. The positive brush is insulated from the brush holder, and its lead wire is connected to the field coil.
  5. Carefully lift the negative brush from the commutator and remove it from the holder.
  6. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.

Starter Drive Replacement
NON-REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. With the starter motor removed from the vehicle, separate the solenoid from the starter.
  2. Remove the two through-bolts and separate the gear case from the yoke housing.
  3. Remove the pinion stopper clip and the pinion stopper.
  4. Slide the starter drive off the armature shaft.
  5. Install the starter drive and reassemble the starter in the reverse order of removal.

REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Unfasten the solenoid and the shift lever.
  3. Remove the bolts securing the center housing to the front cover and separate the parts.
  4. Remove the gears and starter drive.
  5. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.
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How to replace alternator:-------

See Figures 1, 2 and 3

The alternator converts the mechanical energy supplied by the drive belt into electrical energy by a process of electromagnetic induction. When the ignition switch is turned ON , current flows from the battery through the charging system light (or ammeter) to the voltage regulator, and finally to the alternator. When the engine is started, the drive belt turns the rotating field (rotor) in the stationary windings (stator), inducing alternating current. This alternating current is converted into usable direct current by the diode rectifier. Most of this current is used to charge the battery and to supply power for the vehicle's electrical accessories. A small part of this current is returned to the field windings of the alternator, enabling it to increase its power output. When the current in the field windings reaches a predetermined level, the voltage regulator grounds the circuit preventing any further increase. The cycle is continued so that the voltage supply remains constant.

All models use a 12-volt alternator. Amperage ratings vary according to the year and model. All models have an electronic, nonadjustable regulator, integral with the alternator.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of the alternator assembly-most 1989 models



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Fig. Fig. 2: Exploded view of the alternator assembly-most 1990-93 models



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Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of the alternator assembly-most 1992-95 models models

ALTERNATOR PRECAUTIONS



To prevent damage to the alternator and regulator, the following precautionary measures must be taken when working with the electrical system.



Never reverse the battery connections. Always visually check the battery polarity before any connections are made, to ensure that all connections correspond to the truck's battery ground polarity.
Booster batteries must be connected properly. Make sure the positive cable of the booster battery is connected to the positive terminal of the battery which is getting the boost.
Disconnect the battery cables before using a fast charger; the charger has a tendency to force current through the diodes in the opposite direction for which they were designed.
Never use a fast charger as a booster for starting the truck.
Never disconnect the voltage regulator while the engine is running, unless as noted for testing purposes.
Do not ground the alternator output terminal.
Do not operate the alternator on an open circuit with the field energized.
Do not attempt to polarize the alternator.
Disconnect the battery cables and remove the alternator before using an electric arc welder on the truck.
Protect the alternator from excessive moisture. If the engine is to be steam cleaned, cover or remove the alternator.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



On some models, the alternator is mounted very low on the engine. On these models, it may be necessary to remove the gravel shield and work from beneath the truck in order to gain access to the alternator.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Remove the alternator pivot bolt. Push the alternator inward and remove the drive belt.
  3. Pull back the rubber boots and disconnect the wiring from the back of the alternator.
  4. Remove the alternator mounting bolt, then withdraw the alternator from its bracket.

To install:
  1. Position the alternator in its mounting bracket, then lightly tighten the mounting and adjusting bolts.
  2. Connect the electrical leads at the rear of the alternator.
  3. Adjust the belt tension.
  4. Connect the negative battery cable.
  5. Start the engine and check the charging system for proper operation.

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How to remove battery:---

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the terminal, then disconnect the positive cable. Special pullers are available to remove the clamps.

To avoid sparks, always disconnect the negative cable first and reconnect it last.

  1. Unscrew and remove the battery hold-down clamp.
  2. Remove the battery, being careful not to spill any of the acid.

Spilled acid can be neutralized with a baking soda and water solution. If you somehow get acid into your eyes, flush it out with lots of clean water and get to a doctor as quickly as possible.

To install:
  1. Clean the battery posts thoroughly.
  2. Clean the cable clamps using the special tools or a wire brush, both inside and out.
  3. Install the battery, then fasten the hold-down clamp.
  4. Connect the positive and then the negative cable. Do not hammer them into place. Coat the terminals with grease to prevent corrosion.


CAUTION
Make absolutely sure that the battery is connected properly before you turn on the ignition switch. Reversed polarity can burn out the alternator and regulator in a matter of seconds.

---------
How to remove ignition coil:-----

TESTING



See Figures 1 through 6

Primary Resistance Check

In order to check the coil primary resistance, you must first disconnect all wires from the ignition coil terminals. Using an ohmmeter, check the resistance between the positive and the negative terminals on the coil. The resistance should be:



Z24i-0.80-1.00 ohms
VG30i-0.80-1.00 ohms
KA24E-0.80-1.00 ohms
VG30E-0.80-1.00 ohms

Remember that all Z24i engines have 2 ignition coils; check them both!

If the resistance is not within these tolerances, the coil will require replacement.

Secondary Resistance Check

In order to check the coil secondary resistance, you must first disconnect all wires from the ignition coil terminals. Using an ohmmeter, check the resistance between the positive terminal and the coil wire terminal. The resistance should be:



Z24i-7600-11,400 ohms
VG30i-7600-11,400 ohms
KA24E-7600-11,400 ohms
VG30E-7600-11,400 ohms

Remember that all Z24i engines have 2 ignition coils; check them both!

If the resistance is not within these tolerances, the coil will require replacement.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 7, 8 and 9

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Tag and disconnect all electrical leads at the coil.
  3. Remove the two mounting bolts and lift off the ignition coil.

To install:
  1. Install the coil in position and tighten the mounting bolts.
  2. Connect all wires.
  3. Connect the negative battery cable.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Checking the coil primary resistance-Z24i (VG30i similar)



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Fig. Fig. 2: Checking the coil secondary resistance-Z24i (VG30i similar)



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Fig. Fig. 3: Checking the ignition coil-KA24E engine



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Fig. Fig. 4: Checking the ignition coil-VG30E engine



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Fig. Fig. 5: When checking the power transistor, there should be continuity between terminals A and B-KA24E engine



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Fig. Fig. 6: When checking the power transistor, there should be continuity between terminals A and B-VG30E engine



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Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the coil assembly mounting bolts-all 6-cylinder engines are similar



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Fig. Fig. 8: Remove the electrical connection from the coil assembly



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Fig. Fig. 9: Remove the coil ignition wire from the coil assembly


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