Sunday, March 20, 2011

how to wire the starter on 1985 Nissan Pickup?

see fig below:----
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Right click on the image and select option "open image in new web" if the image is not seen full or its very small to see.-----------

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STARTER REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION:---------

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1 and 2

On some models with automatic transmission, it may be necessary to disconnect the throttle rod.

  1. Disconnect the negative (-) battery cable at the battery, then disconnect the positive (+) battery cable at the starter.
  2. Disconnect the remaining electrical connections at the starter solenoid.
  3. Remove the two nuts holding the starter to the bell housing and pull the starter toward the front of the vehicle.
  4. To install the unit, insert the starter into the bell housing being sure that the starter drive is not jammed against the flywheel. Tighten the attaching nuts EVENLY and replace all electrical connections making the battery connection the last.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Removing the starter mounting bolts



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Fig. Fig. 2: Removing the starter assembly

OVERHAUL



See Figures 3 and 4

Solenoid Replacement
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Unscrew the two solenoid switch (magnetic switch) retaining screws.
  3. Remove the solenoid. In order to unhook the solenoid from the starter drive lever, lift it up at the same time that you are pulling it out of the starter housing.
  4. Installation is in the reverse order of removal. Make sure that the solenoid switch is properly engaged with the drive lever before tightening the mounting screws.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Exploded view of a starter assembly-non-reduction gear



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Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of a starter assembly-reduction gear

Brush Replacement
NON-REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Remove the solenoid (magnetic switch).
  3. Remove the two end frame cap mounting bolts and remove the end frame cap.
  4. Remove the O-ring and lock plate from the armature shaft groove and then slide the shims off the shaft.
  5. Unscrew the two long housing screws (they are found at the front of the starter) and carefully pull off the end plate.
  6. Using a screwdriver, separate the brushes from the brush holder.
  7. Slide the brush holder off of the armature shaft.
  8. Crush the old brushes off of the copper braid and file away any remaining solder.
  9. Fit the new brushes to the braid and spread the braid slightly.

Use a soldering iron of at least 250 watts.

  1. Solder the brush to the braid using a radio-grade solder. Grip the copper braid with flat pliers to prevent the solder from flowing down its length.
  2. File off any extra solder and then repeat the procedure for the remaining three brushes.
  3. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.

When installing the brush holder, make sure that the brushes line up properly.

REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter. Remove the solenoid.
  2. Remove the thru-bolts and the rear cover. The rear cover can be pried off with a small prybar, but be careful not to damage the O-ring.
  3. Remove the starter housing, armature, and brush holder from the center housing. They can be removed as an assembly.
  4. Remove the positive side brush from its holder. The positive brush is insulated from the brush holder, and its lead wire is connected to the field coil.
  5. Carefully lift the negative brush from the commutator and remove it form the holder.
  6. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.

Starter Drive Replacement
NON-REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. With the starter motor removed from the vehicle, remove the solenoid from the starter.
  2. Remove the two through-bolts and separate the gear case from the yoke housing.
  3. Remove the pinion stopper clip and the pinion stopper.
  4. Slide the starter drive off the armature shaft.
  5. Install the starter drive and reassemble the starter in the reverse order of removal.

REDUCTION GEAR TYPE
  1. Remove the starter.
  2. Remove the solenoid and the shift lever.
  3. Remove the bolts securing the center housing to the front cover and separate the parts.
  4. Remove the gears and starter drive.
  5. Installation is in the reverse order of removal.

BATTERY AND STARTING SYSTEM WORKING PROCEDURES:----

The battery is the first link in the chain of mechanisms which work together to provide cranking of the automobile engine. In most modern trucks, the battery is a lead/acid electro-chemical device consisting of six two-volt (2V) subsections connected in series so the unit is capable of producing approximately 12V of electrical pressure. Each subsection, or cell, consists of a series of positive and negative plates held a short distance apart in a solution of sulfuric acid and water. The two types of plates are of dissimilar metals. This causes a chemical reaction to be set up, and it is this reaction which produces current flow from the battery when its positive and negative terminals are connected to an electrical appliance such as a lamp or a motor. The continued transfer of electrons would eventually convert sulfuric acid in the electrolyte to water, and make the two plates identical in chemical composition. As electrical energy is removed from the battery, its voltage output tends to drop. Thus, measuring battery voltage and battery electrolyte composition are two ways of checking the ability of the unit to supply power. During engine starting, electrical energy is removed from the battery. However, if the charging circuit is in good condition and the operating conditions are normal, the power removed from the battery will be replaced by the generator (or alternator) which will force electrons back through the battery, reversing the normal flow, and restoring the battery to its original chemical state.

The battery and starting motor are linked by very heavy electrical cables designed to minimize resistance to the flow of current. Generally, the major power supply cable that leaves the battery goes directly to the starter, while other electrical needs are supplied by a smaller cable. During starter operation, power flows from the battery to the starter and is grounded through the truck's frame and the battery's negative ground strap.

The starting motor is a specially designed, direct current electric motor capable of producing a very great amount of power for its size. One thing that allows the motor to produce a great deal of power is its tremendous rotating speed. It drives the engine through a tiny pinion gear (attached to the starter's armature), which drives the very large flywheel ring gear at a greatly reduced speed. Another factor allowing it to produce so much power is that only intermittent operation is required of it. Thus, little allowance for air circulation is required, and the windings can be built into a very small space.

The starter solenoid is a magnetic device which employs the small current supplied by the starting switch circuit of the ignition switch. The magnetic action moves a plunger which mechanically engages the starter and electrically closes the heavy switch which connects it to the battery. The starting switch circuit consists of the starting switch contained within the ignition switch, a transmission neutral safety switch or clutch pedal switch, and the wiring necessary to connect these with the starter solenoid or relay.

A pinion, which is a small gear, is mounted to a one-way drive clutch. This clutch is splined to the starter armature shaft. When the ignition switch is moved to the Start position, the solenoid plunger slides the pinion toward the flywheel ring gear via a collar and spring. If the teeth on the pinion and flywheel match properly, the pinion will engage the flywheel immediately. If the gear teeth butt one another, the spring will be compressed and will force the gears to mesh as soon as the starter turns far enough to allow them to do so. As the solenoid plunger reaches the end of its travel, it closes the contacts that connect the battery and starter, then the engine is cranked.

As soon as the engine starts, the flywheel ring gear begins turning fast enough to drive the pinion at an extremely high rate of speed. At this point, the one-way clutch begins allowing the pinion to spin faster than the starter shaft so that the starter will not operate at excessive speed. When the ignition switch is released from the starter position, the solenoid is de-energized, and a spring contained within the solenoid assembly pulls the gear out of mesh and interrupts the current flow to the starter.

Some starters employ a separate relay, mounted away from the starter, to switch the motor and solenoid current on and off. The relay thus replaces the solenoid electrical switch, but does not eliminate the need for a solenoid mounted on the starter used to mechanically engage the starter drive gears. The relay is used to reduce the amount of current the starting switch must carry.