Saturday, June 4, 2011

steering knuckle bent on the passenger side?

Knuckle removal isn't too hard. You need to:

1. remove braking hardware and tie it out of the way, don't disconnect the line(easy).
2. pop lower ball joint from lower control arm.
3. remove axle nut and axle (easy).
4. pop upper ball joint from top of knuckle.

search for how to pop loose the ball joints. If you JUST have the knuckle, you will need to have the bearing pressed out and in.

Pitman arm puller may help you with the ball joint. (keep the nut flush with the bottom of the ball joint threads, covering the wholes for the cotter pin).

get one at harbor freight or local auto parts store.

Go through detailed procedure:---

Steering Knuckle and Spindle



REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Steering knuckle removal

  1. Siphon some brake fluid from the master cylinder. Raise and support the vehicle.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire. Remove the brake hose from the strut.
  3. Remove the caliper and support on a wire. Refer to brakes section below procedures, then remove the hub-and-disc.
  4. Remove the splash shield. Disconnect the tie rod from the steering knuckle.
  5. Support the lower control arm and disconnect the ball joint from the steering knuckle using tool J-24292A.
  6. Remove the 2 bolts securing the strut to the steering knuckle and remove the steering knuckle.

To install:
  1. Place the steering knuckle into position and install the 2 bolts securing the strut to the steering knuckle.
  2. Support the lower control arm and connect the ball joint to the steering knuckle.
  3. Connect the tie rod to the steering knuckle. Install the splash shield.
  4. Install the caliper.
  5. Install the brake hose from the strut. Install the wheel and tire.
  6. Lower the vehicle and refill the master cylinder with brake fluid.


Front Wheel Bearings


See Figure 1


Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Wheel bearing adjustment

  1. Raise the car and support it at the lower arm.
  2. Remove the hub dust cover and spindle cotter pin. Loosen the nut.
  3. While spinning the wheel, snug the nut down to seat the bearings. Do not exert over 12 ft. lbs. (16 Nm) of force on the nut.
  4. Back the nut off 1 / 4 turn or until it is just loose. Line up the cotter pin hole in the spindle with the hole in the nut.
  5. Insert a new cotter pin. Endplay should be between 0.001-0.005 in. (0.03-0.13mm). If play exceeds this tolerance, the wheel bearings should be replaced.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



  1. Raise the car and support it at the lower arm. Remove the wheel. Remove the brake caliper and support it on a wire.
  2. Remove the dust cap, cotter pin, castle nut, thrust washer and outside wheel bearing. Pull the disc/hub assembly from the steering knuckle.
  3. Pry out the inner seal and remove the inner bearing. If necessary to remove the inner bearing races, use a hammer and a brass drift to drive the bearing races from the hub.
  4. Clean all parts in kerosene or equivalent, DO NOT use gasoline. After cleaning, check parts for excessive wear and replace damaged parts.
  5. Smear grease inside of hub. Install the bearing races into hub, using a hammer and a brass drift. Drive the races in until they seat against the shoulder of the hub.
  6. Pack the bearings with grease and install the inner bearing in the hub. Install a new grease seal, be careful not to damage the seal.
  7. Install the disc/hub assembly onto the steering knuckle. Install the outer bearing, thrust washer and castle nut. Tighten the nut until the wheel does not turn freely.
  8. Back off the nut until the wheel turns freely and install the cotter pin. Install the dust cap, caliper and wheel. Lower the car.

PACKING



Clean the wheel bearings thoroughly with solvent and check their condition before installation.


CAUTION
Do not blow the bearing dry with compressed air as this could allow the bearing to turn without lubrication.

Apply a sizable amount of lubricant to the palm of one hand. Using your other hand, work the bearing into the lubricant so that the grease is pushed through the rollers and out the other side. Keep rotating the bearing while continuing to push the lubricant through it.


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Lower Ball Joint



Before performing this inspection, make sure the wheel bearings are adjusted correctly and that the control arm bushings are in good condition.

  1. Jack the car up under the front lower control arm at the spring seat.
  2. Raise the car until there is 1-2 in. (25-51mm) of clearance under the wheel.
  3. Insert a bar under the wheel and pry upward. If the wheel raises more than 1 / 8 in. (3mm), the ball joints are worn. Determine if the lower ball joint is worn by visual inspection while prying on the wheel.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Lower ball joint replacement

To prevent component damage, an on-car ball joint press, such as Kent-Moore tool J-9519-23 should be used.

  1. Raise and safely support the vehicle, then remove the wheel.
  2. Support the lower control arm spring seat with a jack.
  3. Loosen the lower ball stud nut. Break the ball stud loose. Remove the ball stud nut.
  4. Remove the ball stud from the steering knuckle. Support the steering knuckle aside using a hanger or wire.
  5. Using a ball joint press, remove the ball joint from the lower control arm.

To install:
  1. Install the new ball joint, using the press.
  2. Install the ball stud in the steering knuckle boss.
  3. Install the nut on the ball stud, tightening to 77 ft. lbs. (105 Nm) on all models. Continue to tighten the nut until the cotter pin holes align and install the pin. Do not back off the nut to align the holes.
  4. Install the lube fitting and grease the new joint.

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Lower Control Arm

Print

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



  1. Raise the car and safely support on jackstands.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire.
  3. Remove the stabilizer link and bushings at the lower control arm.
  4. Remove the pivot bolt nuts. DO NOT remove the pivot bolts at this time.
  5. Install tool J-23028 or equivalent adapter to the jack and place into position with tool J-23028 or equivalent adapter supporting bushings.
  6. Install the jackstand under the outside frame rail on the opposite side of the vehicle.
  7. Raise tool J-23028 or equivalent adapter enough to remove both pivot bolts.
  8. Lower tool J-23028 or equivalent adapter.
  9. Remove the spring and insulator tape insulator to the spring.
  10. Remove the ball joint from the knuckle.
  11. To install, reverse the removal procedure.
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MACPHERSON STRUT FRONT SUSPENSION




Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: MacPherson strut front suspension

1982-92 Firebirds are equipped with a front suspension consisting of a pivoting lower control arm on which are mounted a coil spring and a MacPherson strut. The strut and spring are separate. The spring upper end bears on a fixed crossmember; the strut upper end is located in a strut tower on the fender.

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Stabilizer Shaft


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Stabilizer removal

  1. Raise the car and safely support on jackstands.
  2. Remove the link bolt, nut, grommet, spacer and retainers.
  3. Remove the insulators and brackets.
  4. Remove the stabilizer shaft.

To install:
  1. Position the stabilizer shaft into place and install the insulators and brackets.
  2. Hold the stabilizer shaft approximately 55mm from the bottom of the side rail and torque the bracket bolts to 37 ft. lbs. (50 Nm).
  3. Install the bolt, nut, grommets, spacer and retainers.
  4. Lower the car.
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Struts

Print

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Strut removal



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Matchmarking the strut brace position



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Removing the strut brace nuts



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Lifting out the strut

  1. Place the ignition key in the unlocked position so that the front wheels can be moved.
  2. From inside the engine compartment, remove the upper strut to upper mount nut.


CAUTION
Do not attempt to move the vehicle with the upper strut fastener disconnected.

  1. Raise the front of the vehicle and position safety stands under the vehicle.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  3. Remove the brake caliper without disconnecting the fluid hose, and hang out of the way on a wire. Do not allow the caliper to hang by its fluid hose.
  4. Remove the two lower bolts attaching the strut to the steering knuckle.
  5. Lift the strut up from the steering knuckle to compress the rod, then pull down and remove the strut.

To install:
  1. Half extend the rod through the upper mount, then hand-start the upper fastener, engaging as many threads as possible.
  2. Extend the strut and position it onto the steering knuckle.
  3. Install the lower mount bolts hand-tight.
  4. Tighten the upper fastener fully.
  5. Fully tighten the lower bolts only when the front suspension is on the ground. Torque the steering knuckle-to-strut nuts to 125 ft. lbs. (170 Nm) followed by a 120 degree turn. Do not exceed a final torque of 148 Ft. lbs. (200 Nm).
  6. Install the brake caliper
  7. Install the wheel and tire assembly.
  8. Lower the front of the vehicle.
  9. From inside the engine compartment, tighten the upper strut to upper mount nut to 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm).
  10. Have the front end aligned.

OVERHAUL



The OEM domestic struts are serviced by replacement of the entire unit. There is no strut cartridge to replace.



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See Figure 1


WARNING
Before attempting any repairs involving the steering wheel or disassembly of it, ensure that the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (Air Bag) system is properly disarmed.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Air bag-equipped steering column

DISARMING



  1. Turn the steering wheel to align the wheels in the straight-ahead position.
  2. Turn the ignition switch to the LOCK position.
  3. Remove the SIR air bag fuse from the fuse block.
  4. Remove the left side trim panel and disconnect the yellow 2-way SIR harness wire connector at the base of the steering column.

To enable system:
  1. Turn the ignition switch to the LOCK position.
  2. Reconnect the yellow 2-way connector at the base of the steering column.
  3. Reinstall the SIR fuse and the left side trim panel.
  4. Turn the ignition switch to the RUN position.
  5. Verify the SIR indicator light flashes 7-9 times, if not as specified, inspect system for malfunction or contact the manufacturer.

For more details on the SIR system-including disarming instructions for passenger bags-please refer to Chassis Electrical of this manual.

SUPPLEMENTAL INFLATABLE RESTRAINT (SIR) COIL ASSEMBLY



After performing repairs on the internals of the steering column the coil assembly must be centered in order to avoid damaging the coil or accidental deployment of the air bag. There are 2 different styles of coils, one rotates clockwise and the other rotates counterclockwise.

Adjustment (Centering the Coil)
  1. With the system properly disarmed, hold the coil assembly with the clear bottom up to see the coil ribbon.
  2. While holding the coil assembly, depress the lock spring and rotate the hub in the direction of the arrow until it stops. The coil should now be wound up snug against the center hub.
  3. Rotate the coil assembly in the opposite direction approximately 2 1 / 2turns and release the lock spring between the locking tabs in front of the arrow.
  4. Install the coil assembly onto the steering shaft.
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Steering Column


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



The front of the dash mounting plates must be loosened whenever the steering column is to be lowered from the instrument panel.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. On 1990-92 vehicles, disable the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) system as follows:
    1. Turn the steering wheel so the vehicle's wheels are pointing straight-ahead.


The wheels of the vehicle must be in the straight-ahead position and the steering column in the locked position before proceeding with steering column removal. Failure to follow this procedure will cause the SIR coil to become uncentered, resulting in damage to the coil assembly.

    1. Remove the SIR fuse from the fuse block.
    2. Remove the left sound insulator by removing the nut from the stud and gently prying the insulator from the knee bolster.
    3. Disconnect the Connector Position Assurance (CPA) and yellow 2-way SIR harness connector at the base of the steering column.


  1. Remove the nut and bolt from the upper intermediate shaft coupling. Separate the coupling from the lower end of the steering column.
  2. Remove the steering wheel, if the column is to be replaced or repaired on the bench.
  3. Remove the knee bolster and bracket, if equipped.
  4. Remove the bolts attaching the toe plate to the cowl.
  5. Disconnect the electrical connectors.
  6. Remove the capsule nuts attaching the steering column support bracket to the instrument panel.
  7. Disconnect the park lock cable from the ignition switch inhibitor, if equipped with automatic transmission.
  8. Remove the steering column from the vehicle.

To install:

If a replacement steering column is being installed, do not remove the anti-rotation pin until after the steering column has been connected to the steering gear. Removing the anti-rotation pin before the steering column is connected to the steering gear may damage the SIR coil assembly.

  1. Position the steering column in the vehicle.
  2. Connect the park lock cable to the ignition switch inhibitor on vehicles with automatic transmission.
  3. Install the capsule nuts attaching the steering column support bracket to the instrument panel and tighten to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
  4. Install the nut and bolt to the upper intermediate shaft coupling attaching the upper intermediate shaft to the steering column. Tighten the nut to 44 ft. lbs. (60 Nm).
  5. Install the bolts attaching the toe plate to the cowl and tighten to 58 inch lbs. (6.5 Nm).
  6. Connect the electrical connectors.
  7. Remove the anti-rotation pin if a service replacement steering column is being installed.
  8. Install the knee bolster and bracket, if equipped.
  9. Install the sound insulator panel.

If SIR coil has become uncentered by turning of the steering wheel without the column connected to the steering gear, follow the proper adjustment procedure for the SIR coil assembly before proceeding.

  1. Install the steering wheel.
  2. Connect the negative battery cable.
  3. Enable the SIR system as follows:
    1. Connect the yellow 2-way SIR harness connector to the base of the steering column and CPA clip and install the SIR fuse.
    2. Install the left sound insulator.
    3. Turn the ignition switch to the RUN position and verify that the inflatable restraint indicator flashes 7-9 times and then turns OFF. If the indicator does not respond as stated, a problem within the SIR system is indicated.
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Steering Wheel

Print

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION




WARNING
Before attempting any repairs involving the steering wheel or disassembly of it, ensure that the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (Air Bag) system is properly disarmed.

If the vehicle is equipped with a SIR (Air Bag) system, ensure that the proper disarming procedure is followed.

1982-89 VEHICLES

See Figure 1



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Steering wheel removal

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Remove the horn pad.
  3. Disconnect the horn contact lead.
  4. Remove the retainer and steering wheel nut.
  5. Using a suitable steering wheel puller, remove the steering wheel.
  6. Installation is the reverse of the removal procedure. Tighten the steering wheel nut to 31 ft. lbs. (42 Nm).

1990-92 VEHICLES

CAUTION
The vehicle is equipped with a Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) system, follow the recommended disarming procedures before performing any work on or around the system. Failure to do so may result in possible deployment of the air bag and/or personal injury.

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Disable the Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (SIR) system as follows:
    1. Turn the steering wheel so the vehicle's wheels are pointing straight-ahead.
    2. Remove the left sound insulator by removing the nut from the stud and gently prying the insulator from the knee bolster.
    3. Disconnect the Connector Position Assurance (CPA) clip and yellow 2-way SIR harness connector at the base of the steering column.
    4. Remove the SIR fuse from the fuse block.

  3. Loosen the screws and locknuts from the back of the steering wheel using a suitable Torx® driver or equivalent, until the inflator module can be released from the steering wheel. Remove the inflator module from the steering wheel.


CAUTION
When carrying a live inflator module, ensure the bag and trim cover are pointed away from the body. In case of an accidental deployment, the bag will then deploy with minimal chance of injury. When placing a live inflator module on a bench or other surface, always place the bag and trim cover up, away from the surface. This is necessary so a free space is provided to allow the air bag to expand in the unlikely event of accidental deployment. Otherwise, personal injury may result. Also, never carry the inflator module by the wires or connector on the underside of the module.

  1. Disconnect the coil assembly connector and CPA clip from the inflator module terminal.
  2. Remove the steering wheel locking nut.
  3. Using a suitable puller, remove the steering wheel and disconnect the horn contact. When attaching the steering wheel puller, use care to prevent threading the side screws into the coil assembly and damaging the coil assembly.

To install:
  1. Route the coil assembly connector through the steering wheel.
  2. Connect the horn contact and install the steering wheel. When installing the steering wheel, align the block tooth on the steering wheel with the block tooth on the steering shaft within 1 female serration.
  3. Install the steering wheel locking nut. Tighten the nut to 31 ft. lbs. (42 Nm).
  4. Connect the coil assembly connector and CPA clip to the inflator module terminal.
  5. Install the inflator module. Ensure the wiring is not exposed or trapped between the inflator module and the steering wheel. Tighten the inflator module screws to 25 inch lbs. (2.8 Nm).
  6. Connect the negative battery cable.
  7. Enable the SIR system as follows:
    1. Connect the yellow 2-way SIR harness connector to base of the steering column and CPA.
    2. Install the left sound insulator.
    3. Install the SIR fuse in the fuse block.
    4. Turn the ignition switch to the RUN position and verify that the inflatable restraint indicator flashes 7-9 times and then turns OFF. If the indicator does not respond as stated, a problem within the SIR system is indicated.
    5. -------------------

    Power Steering Gear

    Print

    ADJUSTMENTS



    Adjust the worm bearing preload first, then proceed with the Pitman shaft over-center adjustment.

    Worm Bearing Preload

    See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 1: Loosening the power steering gear adjuster plug



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 2: Marking the housing even with the adjuster plug hole



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 3: Scribing the second index mark



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 4: Using a spanner wrench to align the adjuster plug with the second mark

    1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
    2. Remove the steering gear.
    3. Rotate the stub shaft and drain the power steering fluid into a suitable container.
    4. Remove the adjuster plug nut.
    5. Turn the adjuster plug in (clockwise) using a suitable spanner wrench until the adjuster plug and thrust bearing are firmly bottomed in the housing. Tighten the adjuster plug to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
    6. Place an index mark on the housing even with 1 of the holes in the adjuster plug.
    7. Measure back counterclockwise 1 / 2 in. (13mm) and place a second mark on the housing.
    8. Turn the adjuster plug counterclockwise until the hole in the adjuster plug is aligned with the second mark on the housing.
    9. Install the adjuster plug nut and using a suitable punch in a notch, tighten securely. Hold the adjuster plug to maintain alignment of the marks.
    10. Install the steering gear and connect the negative battery cable.

    Pitman Shaft Over-Center

    See Figures 5 and 6



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 5: Aligning the stub shaft parallel with the top cover



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 6: Checking the over-center rotational torque

    1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
    2. Remove the steering gear.
    3. Rotate the stub shaft and drain the power steering fluid into a suitable container.
    4. Turn the Pitman shaft adjuster screw counterclockwise until fully extended, then turn back 1 full turn.
    5. Rotate the stub shaft from stop-to-stop and count the number of turns.
    6. Starting at either stop, turn the stub shaft back half the total number of turns. This is the "Center'' position of the gear. When the gear is centered, the flat on the stub shaft should face upward and be parallel with the side cover, and the master spline on the Pitman shaft should be in line with the adjuster screw.
    7. Rotate the stub shaft 45 degrees each side of the center using a suitable torque wrench with the handle in the vertical position. Record the worm bearing preload measured on or near the center gear position.
    8. Adjust the over-center drag torque by loosening the adjuster locknut and turning the Pitman shaft adjuster screw clockwise until the correct drag torque is obtained: Add 6-10 inch lbs. (0.7-1.1 Nm) of torque to the previously measured worm bearing preload torque. Tighten the adjuster locknut to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm). Prevent the adjuster screw from turning while tightening the adjuster screw locknut.
    9. Install the steering gear and connect the negative battery cable.

    REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



    See Figure 7



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 7: Steering gear removal

    1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Remove the coupling shield.
    2. Remove the retaining bolts at the steering coupling to steering shaft flange.
    3. Remove the Pitman arm nut and washer. Mark the relation of the arm position to the shaft.
    4. Remove Pitman arm using special tool J-6632 or its equal.
    5. Remove the steering box to frame bolts. Remove the steering box.

    On vehicles with power steering, remove the fluid hoses and cap them to prevent foreign material from entering the system.

    To install:
    1. Position the steering box and secure with the steering box-to-frame bolts.
    2. Install the Pitman arm to the matchmarks made earlier.
    3. Install the Pitman arm nut and washer.
    4. Install the retaining bolts at the steering coupling to steering shaft flange.
    5. Install the coupling shield.
    6. Connect the negative battery cable.

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    Power Steering Pump

    Print

    REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



    See Figures 1, 2 and 3



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 1: Pulley removal



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 2: Steering pump removal; V6



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 3: Steering pump removal; V8

    1. Remove the hoses at the pump and tape the openings shut to prevent contamination. Position the disconnected lines in a raised position to prevent leakage.
    2. Remove the pump belt. Remove the pump pulley, as required
    3. Loosen the retaining bolts and any braces, and remove the pump.

    To install:
    1. Install the pump on the engine with the retaining bolt handtight.
    2. Connect and tighten the hose fittings.
    3. Refill the pump with fluid and bleed by turning the pulley counterclockwise (viewed from the front). Stop the bleeding when air bubbles no longer appear.
    4. Install the pump belt on the pulley and adjust the tension.

    SYSTEM BLEEDING



    1. Fill the reservoir with power steering fluid.

    The use of automatic transmission fluid in the power steering system is NOT recommended.

    1. Allow the reservoir and fluid to sit undisturbed for a few minutes.
    2. Start the engine, allow it to run for a moment, then turn it off.
    3. Check the reservoir fluid level and add fluid if necessary.
    4. Repeat the above steps until the fluid level stabilizes.
    5. Raise the front of the vehicle so that the wheels are off of the ground.
    6. Start the engine and increase the engine speed to about 1500 rpm.
    7. Turn the front wheels right to left (and back) several times, lightly contacting the wheel stops at the ends of travel.
    8. Check the reservoir fluid level. Add fluid as required.
    9. Repeat step 8 until the fluid level in the reservoir stabilizes.
    10. Lower the vehicle and repeat steps 8 and 9.----------------

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    Steering Linkage

    Print

    See Figure 1



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 1: Steering linkage (exploded view)

    REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



    Pitman Arm

    See Figure 2



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 2: Removing the Pitman arm with the tool shown

    1. Raise the vehicle and support safely on jackstands.
    2. Remove the nut from the Pitman arm ball stud.
    3. Remove the relay rod from the Pitman arm by using a tool such as J-24319-01 or equivalent. Pull down on the relay rod to remove it from the stud.
    4. Remove the Pitman arm nut from the Pitman shaft and mark the relation of the arm position to the shaft.
    5. Remove the Pitman arm with tool J-5504 or tool J-6632 or equivalent. DO NOT HAMMER ON THE PULLER.

    To install:
    1. Position the Pitman arm on the Pitman shaft, lining up the marks made upon removal.
    2. Position the relay rod on the Pitman arm. Use J-29193 or J-29194 or equivalent to seat the tapers. A torque of 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) is required. With the tapers seated, remove the tool, then install a prevailing torque nut, and tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
    3. Set the relay rod height. Torque the idler arm-to-frame mounting bolts to 61 ft. lbs. (83 Nm).
    4. Lower the vehicle.

    Idler Arm
    1. Raise the vehicle and support safely on jackstands.
    2. Remove the idler arm to frame nuts, washers, and bolts.
    3. Remove the nut from the idler arm to relay rod ball stud.
    4. Remove the relay rod from the idler arm by using J-24319-01 or equivalent.
    5. Remove the idler arm.

    To install:
    1. Position the idler arm on the frame and LOOSELY install the mounting bolts, washers and nuts.
    2. Install the relay rod to the idler arm, making certain seal is on the stud. Use J-29193 or J-29194 or equivalent to seat the tapers. A torque of 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) is required. With the tapers seated, remove the tool, then install a prevailing torque nut, and tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
    3. Set the relay rod height. Torque the idler arm-to-frame mounting bolts to 61 ft. lbs. (83 Nm).
    4. Lower the vehicle.

    Relay Rod

    See Figures 3, 4 and 5



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 3: Removing the relay rod-to-tie rod nut



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 4: Separating the tie rod from the relay rod using a gear puller



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 5: Disconnecting the tie rod from the relay rod

    During production, the installed position of the relay rod is carefully controlled to assure that the rod is at the proper height. Both the left end and the right end of the relay rod must be held at the same height. The side-to-side height is controlled by adjusting the position of the idler arm

    Whenever disconnecting the relay rod assembly, it is important to first scribe the position of the idler arm-to-frame, and to reinstall the idler arm in the same position. Be sure to prevent the idler support from turning in the bushing, since that motion could result in improper relay rod height.

    Whenever replacing the relay rod, or the idler arm, or the Pitman arm, it is mandatory to establish the correct height.

    1. Raise the vehicle and support safely on jackstands.
    2. Remove the inner ends of the tie rods from the relay rod.
    3. Remove the nut from the relay rod ball stud attachment at Pitman arm.
    4. Detach the relay rod from the Pitman arm by using tool such as J-24319-01 or equivalent. Shift the steering linkage as required to free the Pitman arm from the relay rod.
    5. Remove the nut from the idler arm and remove the relay rod from the idler arm.

    To install:
    1. Install the relay rod to idler arm, making certain idler stud seal is in place. Use J-29193 or J-29194 or equivalent to seat the tapers. A torque of 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) is required. With the tapers seated, remove the tool, then install a prevailing torque nut, and tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
    2. Raise the end of the rod and install on the Pitman arm. Use J-29193 or J-29194 or equivalent to seat the tapers. A torque of 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) is required. With the tapers seated, remove the tool, then install a prevailing torque nut, and tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
    3. Install the tie rod ends to the relay rod. Lubricate the tie rod ends.
    4. Install the damper, if equipped.
    5. Set the relay rod height. Torque the idler arm-to-frame mounting bolts to 61 ft. lbs. (83 Nm).
    6. Lower the vehicle.
    7. Check and, if necessary, adjust front end alignment.

    Tie Rod Ends

    See Figure 6



    Click image to see an enlarged view

    Fig. Fig. 6: Using a tie rod removal tool

    1. Raise the vehicle and support safely on jackstands.
    2. Remove the cotter pins from the ball studs and remove the castellated nuts.
    3. Remove the outer ball stud by using the ball stud puller. If necessary, pull downward on the tie rod to disconnect it from the steering arm.
    4. Remove the inner ball stud from the relay rod using a similar procedure.
    5. Remove the tie rod end or ends to be replaced by loosening the clamp bolt and unscrewing them.

    To install:
    1. Lubricate tie rod threads with chassis grease and install new tie rod(s). Make sure both ends are an equal distance from the tie rod and tighten clamp bolts.
    2. Make sure ball studs, tapered surfaces, and all threaded surfaces are clean and smooth, and free of grease. Install seals on ball studs. Install ball stud in steering arm and relay rod.
    3. Rotate both inner and outer tie rod housings rearward to the limit of ball joint travel before tightening clamps. Make sure clamp slots and sleeve slots are aligned before tightening clamps. Make sure tightened bolts will be in horizontal position to 45 degrees upward (in the forward direction) when the tie rod is in its normal position. Make sure the tie rod end stays in position relative to the rod during the tightening operation. Tighten the clamps, and then return the assembly to the center of its travel.
    4. Install ball stud nuts and torque to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm) Then tighten (do not loosen) further as required to align cotter pin holes in studs and nuts. Install new cotter pins.
    5. Lubricate new tie rod ends and lower the vehicle.
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Wheel Lug Studs

Print

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



With Disc Brakes

See Figures 1, 2 and 3

  1. Raise and support the appropriate end of the vehicle safely using jackstands, then remove the wheel.
  2. Remove the brake pads and caliper. Support the caliper aside using wire or a coat hanger. For details, please refer to Brakes of this repair guide.
  3. Remove the outer wheel bearing and lift off the rotor. For details on wheel bearing removal, installation and adjustment, please refer toGeneral Information & Maintenance of this repair guide.
  4. Properly support the rotor using press bars, then drive the stud out using an arbor press.

If a press is not available, CAREFULLY drive the old stud out using a blunt drift. MAKE SURE the rotor is properly and evenly supported or it may be damaged.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: View of the rotor and stud assembly



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 2: Pressing the stud from the rotor

To install:
  1. Clean the stud hole with a wire brush and start the new stud with a hammer and drift pin. Do not use any lubricant or thread sealer.
  2. Finish installing the stud with the press.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 3: Use a press to install the stud into the rotor

If a press is not available, start the lug stud through the bore in the hub, then position about 4 flat washers over the stud and thread the lug nut. Hold the hub/rotor while tightening the lug nut, and the stud should be drawn into position. MAKE SURE THE STUD IS FULLY SEATED, then remove the lug nut and washers.

  1. Install the rotor and adjust the wheel bearings.
  2. Install the brake caliper and pads.
  3. Install the wheel, then remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  4. Tighten the lug nuts to the proper torque.

With Drum Brakes

See Figures 4, 5 and 6

  1. Raise the vehicle and safely support it with jackstands, then remove the wheel.
  2. Remove the brake drum.
  3. If necessary to provide clearance, remove the brake shoes, as outlined inBrakes of this repair guide.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 4: Exploded view of the drum, axle flange and stud



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 5: Use a C-clamp and socket to press out the stud



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 6: Force the stud onto the axle flange using washers and a lug nut

  1. Using a large C-clamp and socket, press the stud from the axle flange.
  2. Coat the serrated part of the stud with liquid soap and place it into the hole.

To install:
  1. Position about 4 flat washers over the stud and thread the lug nut. Hold the flange while tightening the lug nut, and the stud should be drawn into position. MAKE SURE THE STUD IS FULLY SEATED, then remove the lug nut and washers.
  2. If applicable, install the brake shoes.
  3. Install the brake drum.
  4. Install the wheel, then remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  5. Tighten the lug nuts to the proper torque.


Wheels

Print

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figure 1



Park the vehicle on a level surface.Remove the jack, tire iron and, if necessary, the spare tire from their storage compartments.
Check the owner's manual or refer to General Information & Maintenance of this repair guide for the jacking points on your vehicle. Then, place the jack in the proper position.
If equipped with lug nut trim caps, remove them by either unscrewing or pulling them off the lug nuts, as appropriate. Consult the owner's manual, if necessary.
If equipped with a wheel cover or hub cap, insert the tapered end of the tire iron in the groove and pry off the cover.

  1. Apply the parking brake and block the diagonally opposite wheel with a wheel chock or two.

Wheel chocks may be purchased at your local auto parts store, or a block of wood cut into wedges may be used. If possible, keep one or two of the chocks in your tire storage compartment, in case any of the tires has to be removed on the side of the road.

  1. If equipped with an automatic transmission, place the selector lever in Por Park; with a manual transmission, place the shifter in Reverse.



With the tires still on the ground, use the tire iron/wrench to break the lug nuts loose.

If a nut is stuck, never use heat to loosen it or damage to the wheel and bearings may occur. If the nuts are seized, one or two heavy hammer blows directly on the end of the bolt usually loosens the rust. Be careful, as continued pounding will likely damage the brake drum or rotor.

  1. Using the jack, raise the vehicle until the tire is clear of the ground. Support the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  2. Remove the lug nuts, then remove the tire and wheel assembly.

To install:
  1. Make sure the wheel and hub mating surfaces, as well as the wheel lug studs, are clean and free of all foreign material. Always remove rust from the wheel mounting surface and the brake rotor or drum. Failure to do so may cause the lug nuts to loosen in service.



Install the tire and wheel assembly and hand-tighten the lug nuts.

  1. Using the tire wrench, tighten all the lug nuts, in a crisscross pattern, until they are snug.



Raise the vehicle and withdraw the jackstand, then lower the vehicle.
Using a torque wrench, tighten the lug nuts in a crisscross pattern to 100 ft. lbs. (140 Nm) for 1982-85 vehicles with aluminum wheels, 80 ft. lbs. (110 Nm) for 1982-85 vehicles with steel wheels, 80 ft. lbs. (110 Nm) for 1986-91 vehicles or 100 ft. lbs. (140 Nm) for 1992 vehicles. Check your owner's manual or refer to General Information & Maintenance of this repair guide for the proper tightening sequence.



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 1: Typical wheel lug tightening sequence


WARNING
Do not overtighten the lug nuts, as this may cause the wheel studs to stretch or the brake disc (rotor) to warp.



If so equipped, install the wheel cover or hub cap. Make sure the valve stem protrudes through the proper opening before tapping the wheel cover into position.
If equipped, install the lug nut trim caps by pushing them or screwing them on, as applicable.
Remove the jack from under the vehicle, and place the jack and tire iron/wrench in their storage compartments. Remove the wheel chock(s).
If you have removed a flat or damaged tire, place it in the storage compartment of the vehicle and take it to your local repair station to have it fixed or replaced as soon as possible.

INSPECTION



Inspect the tires for lacerations, puncture marks, nails and other sharp objects. Repair or replace as necessary. Also check the tires for treadwear and air pressure as outlined in General Information & Maintenance of this repair guide.

Check the wheel assemblies for dents, cracks, rust and metal fatigue. Repair or replace as necessary.

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