Monday, August 1, 2011

how to replace the rear disc brakes on 1996 Ford Taurus?

Brake Disc (Rotor)


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Front

See Figures 1, 2 and 3



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Fig. Fig. 1: Remove the caliper bracket retaining bolts and...



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Fig. Fig. 2: ... remove the bracket from the vehicle



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Fig. Fig. 3: Carefully remove the rotor from the hub assembly

  1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  3. Remove the disc brake caliper and the caliper anchor bracket as an assembly. Discard the bracket retaining bolts. Position the caliper aside and support it with a length of wire. Do not allow the caliper to hang by the brake hose.

To prevent contamination of the disc brake caliper guide pin journals, do not separate the disc brake caliper from the caliper anchor bracket.

  1. Separate the disc brake rotor from the hub assembly by pulling it off the hub studs. If additional force is required to remove the rotor, apply rust penetrate on the front and rear rotor/hub mating surfaces and then strike the rotor between the studs with a plastic hammer. If this does not work, attach a suitable 3-jaw puller and remove the rotor.

If excessive force must be used to remove the rotor, it should be checked for lateral run-out before installation.

  1. Check the rotor for scoring and/or other wear. Machine or replace, as necessary.

To install:
  1. If the disc brake rotor is being replaced, remove the protective coating from the new rotor. If the original rotor is being installed, make sure the rotor braking surfaces are clean.
  2. Apply a small amount of silicone dielectric compound or equivalent, to the pilot diameter of the disc brake rotor. Install the rotor on the hub assembly.
  3. Install remaining components in the reverse order of removal. Torque the following

    Caliper anchor bracket bolts to 65-87 ft. lbs. (88-118 Nm)
    Lug nuts to 85-105 ft. lbs. (115-142 Nm)

  4. Pump the brake pedal several times prior to moving the vehicle to seat the disc brake pads to the rotor.
  5. Road test the vehicle and check the brake system for proper operation.

Rear

See Figures 4 through 8



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Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the caliper bracket retaining bolts and...



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Fig. Fig. 5: ... remove the bracket from the vehicle



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Fig. Fig. 6: If equipped, pry or cut off the...



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Fig. Fig. 7: ... retainer nuts placed on the rotors from the assembly line



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Fig. Fig. 8: Carefully remove the rotor from the hub assembly

  1. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  2. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  3. Remove the caliper assembly from the disc brake rotor and support it with a length of wire. Do not let the caliper hang from the brake line.
  4. Remove the upper and lower support bracket retaining bolts. Remove the support bracket.
  5. Remove 2 retainer nuts and remove the disc brake rotor from the hub. Check the rotor for scoring and/or other wear. Machine or replace, as necessary.

To install:
  1. If the disc brake rotor is being replaced, remove the protective coating from the new rotor. If the original rotor is being installed, make sure the rotor braking surfaces are clean.
  2. Install the disc brake rotor on the hub assembly.

Lubricate the hub pilot with a suitable caliper slide grease to ease future rotor removal.

  1. Install 2 retainer nuts to hold the disc brake rotor in position.
  2. Install the disc brake caliper support bracket and tighten the support bracket retaining bolts to 65-87 ft. lbs. (88-118 Nm).
  3. Install the brake pads and disc brake caliper assembly.
  4. Install the wheel and tire assembly. Install the lug nuts and torque to 85-105 ft. lbs. (115-142 Nm).
  5. Pump the brake pedal several times prior to moving the vehicle to seat the brake pads to the rotor.
  6. Road test the vehicle and check the brake system for proper operation.

INSPECTION



See Figures 9 and 10



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Fig. Fig. 9: Check brake rotor thickness in several places around the rotor



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Fig. Fig. 10: Mount the dial indicator and zero the indicator

Rotor thickness should be measured any time a brake inspection is done. Rotor thickness can be measured using a brake rotor micrometer or Vernier caliper. Measure the rotor thickness in several places around the rotor. Compare the thickness to the specifications chart found at the end of this section.

The run-out of the brake rotor should be checked any time a vibration during braking occurs. Excessive run-out can be caused by a build-up of rust scale or other particles on the rotor or hub surfaces. Remove the rotor and thoroughly clean the hub and rotor-to-hub mounting surface on the back of the rotor. Mount a dial indicator to a suspension member and zero the indicator stylus on the face of the rotor. Rotate the rotor 360 degrees by hand and record the run-out.

Compare measurements to the brake specifications chart. If the thickness and run-out do not meet specifications, replace the rotor.


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Brake Caliper


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Front

See Figures 1 and 2



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Fig. Fig. 1: Remove the caliper locating pins and...



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Fig. Fig. 2: ... remove the caliper from the bracket and rotor

  1. Remove brake fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir until the reservoir is 1 / 2 full.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  4. Mark the disc brake caliper to ensure that it is reinstalled in the correct location.
  5. Remove the hollow bolt connecting the brake hose to the disc brake caliper and plug the brake hose. Discard the 2 copper sealing washers.


WARNING
Do not pry directly against the piston or damage to the piston will result.

  1. Remove the caliper locating pins and lift the caliper off the rotor using a rotating motion.

To install:
  1. Retract the disc brake caliper piston fully in the piston bore, using an old brake pad or block of wood and a C-clamp or equivalent.

Be sure to clean all dirt from the mating surfaces of the caliper locating pins and housing ears. Also, make sure the clip-on insulators are attached to the brake pads.

  1. Install the disc brake pads to the caliper. Make sure the brake pad insulators are correctly attached to the brake pad plate.
  2. Position the disc brake caliper and pad assembly above the rotor and install it with a rotating motion. Make sure the inner and outer pads are properly positioned and the outer anti-rattle spring is properly positioned.
  3. Lubricate the locating pins and the inside of the insulators with silicone grease. Tighten the locating pins to 23-28 ft. lbs. (31-38 Nm).
  4. Remove the plug and install the brake hose to the disc brake caliper. Use 2 new copper washers and torque the hollow bolt to 30-40 ft. lbs. (41-54 Nm).
  5. Bleed the brake system, filling the master cylinder as required.
  6. Install the wheel and tire assembly; tighten the nuts to 85-104 ft. lbs. (115-142 Nm).
  7. Lower the vehicle.
  8. Pump the brake pedal several times to position the brake pads prior to moving the vehicle.
  9. Road test the vehicle and check for proper brake system operation.

Rear

See Figures 3 through 8



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Fig. Fig. 3: Rear caliper brake hose connection



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Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the retaining clip from the parking brake cable and...



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Fig. Fig. 5: ... remove the cable from the caliper



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Fig. Fig. 6: Remove the top and...



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Fig. Fig. 7: ... lower caliper locating pins. The lower locating pin must be removed using a wrench to clear the parking brake actuator spring



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Fig. Fig. 8: Carefully slide the caliper from the caliper bracket and off of the rotor

  1. Remove brake fluid from the brake master cylinder reservoir until the reservoir is 1 / 2 full.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  4. Remove the retaining bolt and disconnect the brake hose from the caliper assembly. Discard the copper sealing washers.
  5. Remove the retaining clip from the parking brake at the caliper. Disengage the parking brake cable end from the lever arm.
  6. Lift the rear disc brake caliper away from the rear disc support bracket.
  7. Remove the disc brake caliper locating pins and boots from the rear disc support bracket.

To install:
  1. Using rear caliper piston adjuster tool T87P-2588-A or equivalent, rotate the rear disc brake piston and adjuster clockwise until fully seated.

Make sure one of the 2 slots in the rear disc brake piston and adjuster face is positioned so it will engage the nib on the disc brake pad.

  1. Apply silicone dielectric compound or equivalent, to the inside of the slider pin boots and the slider pins.
  2. Position the slider pins and boots in the support bracket. Position the caliper assembly on the support bracket. Make sure the brake pads are installed correctly.
  3. Remove the residue from the pin retainer threads and apply 1 drop of threadlock and sealer. Install the pin retainers and tighten to 23-25 ft. lbs. (31-35 Nm).
  4. Attach the cable end to the parking brake lever. Install the cable retaining clip on the caliper assembly.
  5. Using new washers, connect the brake flex hose to the caliper. Tighten the retaining bolt to 40 ft. lbs. (54 Nm).
  6. Bleed the brake system, filling the master cylinder as required.
  7. Install the wheel and tire assembly; tighten the nuts to 85-104 ft. lbs. (115-142 Nm).
  8. Lower the vehicle.
  9. Pump the brake pedal several times to position the brake pads prior to moving the vehicle.
  10. Road test the vehicle and check for proper brake system operation.

OVERHAUL



See Figures 9 through 16

Some vehicles may be equipped dual piston calipers. The procedure to overhaul the caliper is essentially the same with the exception of multiple pistons, O-rings and dust boots.

  1. Remove the caliper from the vehicle and place on a clean workbench.


CAUTION
NEVER place your fingers in front of the pistons in an attempt to catch or protect the pistons when applying compressed air. This could result in personal injury!

Depending upon the vehicle, there are two different ways to remove the piston from the caliper. Refer to the brake pad replacement procedure to make sure you have the correct procedure for your vehicle.

  1. The first method is as follows:
    1. Stuff a shop towel or a block of wood into the caliper to catch the piston.
    2. Remove the caliper piston using compressed air applied into the caliper inlet hole. Inspect the piston for scoring, nicks, corrosion and/or worn or damaged chrome plating. The piston must be replaced if any of these conditions are found.




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Fig. Fig. 9: For some types of calipers, use compressed air to drive the piston out of the caliper, but make sure to keep your fingers clear



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Fig. Fig. 10: Withdraw the piston from the caliper bore

    1. For the second method, you must rotate the piston to retract it from the caliper.
    2. If equipped, remove the anti-rattle clip.




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Fig. Fig. 11: On some vehicles, you must remove the anti-rattle clip

  1. Use a prytool to remove the caliper boot, being careful not to scratch the housing bore.



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Fig. Fig. 12: Use a prytool to carefully pry around the edge of the boot...



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Fig. Fig. 13: ... then remove the boot from the caliper housing, taking care not to score or damage the bore

  1. Remove the piston seals from the groove in the caliper bore.



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Fig. Fig. 14: Use extreme caution when removing the piston seal; DO NOT scratch the caliper bore

  1. Carefully loosen the brake bleeder valve cap and valve from the caliper housing.
  2. Inspect the caliper bores, pistons and mounting threads for scoring or excessive wear.
  3. Use crocus cloth to polish out light corrosion from the piston and bore.
  4. Clean all parts with denatured alcohol and dry with compressed air.

To assemble:
  1. Lubricate and install the bleeder valve and cap.
  2. Install the new seals into the caliper bore grooves, making sure they are not twisted.
  3. Lubricate the piston bore.
  4. Install the pistons and boots into the bores of the calipers and push to the bottom of the bores.
  5. Use a suitable driving tool to seat the boots in the housing.



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Fig. Fig. 15: Use the proper size driving tool and a mallet to properly seal the boots in the caliper housing

  1. Install the caliper in the vehicle.
  2. Install the wheel and tire assembly, then carefully lower the vehicle.
  3. Properly bleed the brake system.



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Fig. Fig. 16: There are tools, such as this Mighty-Vac, available to assist in proper brake system bleeding


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Brake Pads


REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Front

See Figures 1 through 10



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Fig. Fig. 1: Remove the caliper locating pins and...



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Fig. Fig. 2: ... remove the caliper from the bracket and rotor



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Fig. Fig. 3: Support the caliper using a piece of mechanic's wire



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Fig. Fig. 4: Remove the outer and...



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Fig. Fig. 5: ... inner brake pads from the caliper bracket



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Fig. Fig. 6: Special tools, such as this one from Lisle®, are available to compress the caliper pistons, however...



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Fig. Fig. 7: ... if they are not available, a large C-clamp works well also



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Fig. Fig. 8: Remember to install the spring into the caliper if removed



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Fig. Fig. 9: Remember to transfer the shims and retaining clips if new ones are not provided with your new pads



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Fig. Fig. 10: Lubricate the caliper locating pin slides before installing the caliper onto the bracket


CAUTION
Older brake pads or shoes may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be cancer causing agent. Never clean the brake surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling any dust from any brake surface! When cleaning brake surfaces, use a commercially available brake cleaning fluid.

  1. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap and check the fluid level in the reservoir. Remove brake fluid until the reservoir is 1 / 2 full. Discard the removed fluid.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  4. Remove the disc brake caliper locating pins. Lift the caliper assembly from the anchor plate and rotor using a rotating motion.


WARNING
Do not pry directly against the metal caliper piston or damage will occur.

  1. Suspend the caliper inside the fender housing with wire. Do not allow the caliper to hang from the brake hose.
  2. Remove the inner and outer brake pads. Inspect the rotor braking surfaces for scoring and machine as necessary.

To install:
  1. Use a C-clamp and an old brake pad or block of wood to seat the caliper piston in its bore.
  2. Remove any rust buildup from the inside of the caliper in the brake pad contact area.
  3. Install the inner pad in the caliper piston. Install the outer pad. Make sure the clips are properly seated.

Make sure the insulators are installed on the brake pads.

  1. Install the disc brake caliper over the rotor and install the wheel. Lower the vehicle.
  2. Pump the brake pedal several times prior to moving the vehicle to position the brake pads to the rotor.
  3. Refill the master cylinder reservoir as necessary, using only clean DOT 3 or equivalent brake fluid from a closed container.
  4. Road test the vehicle and check the brake system for proper operation.

Rear

See Figures 11 through 21



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Fig. Fig. 11: Remove the retaining clip from the parking brake cable and...



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Fig. Fig. 12: ... remove the cable from the caliper



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Fig. Fig. 13: Remove the top and...



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Fig. Fig. 14: ... lower caliper locating pins. The lower locating pin must be removed using a wrench to clear the parking brake actuator spring



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Fig. Fig. 15: Carefully slide the caliper from the caliper bracket and off of the rotor



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Fig. Fig. 16: Remove the brake pads from the caliper bracket



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Fig. Fig. 17: The piston on the rear calipers requires that it be rotated in to compress it



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Fig. Fig. 18: The caliper piston shown is used to rotate the piston and compress it. Align the small pins with...



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Fig. Fig. 19: ... the small holes in the piston and turn using a suitable tool until the piston is fully compressed and seated



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Fig. Fig. 20: If the special piston is unavailable, a pair of needle nose pliers may be used to rotate the piston in, however, it is considerably more difficult



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Fig. Fig. 21: Remember to transfer the shims and retaining clips if new ones are not provided with your new pads


CAUTION
Older brake pads or shoes may contain asbestos, which has been determined to be cancer causing agent. Never clean the brake surfaces with compressed air! Avoid inhaling any dust from any brake surface! When cleaning brake surfaces, use a commercially available brake cleaning fluid.

  1. Remove the master cylinder reservoir cap and check the fluid level in the reservoir. Remove brake fluid until the reservoir is 1 / 2 full. Discard the removed fluid.
  2. Raise and safely support the vehicle.
  3. Remove the wheel and tire assembly.
  4. Remove the screw retaining the brake hose bracket to the frame side rail.
  5. Remove the retaining clip from the parking brake cable at the disc brake caliper. Remove the cable end from the parking brake lever.
  6. Remove the upper disc brake caliper locating pin at the support bracket. Rotate the caliper away from the rotor.
  7. Remove the disc brake pads.
  8. Inspect the rotor braking surfaces for scoring and machine as necessary.

To install:
  1. Using Rear Caliper Piston Adjuster T87P-2588-A or equivalent, rotate the piston clockwise until it is fully seated. Make sure one of the slots in the piston face is positioned so it will engage the nib on the brake pad.
  2. Install the brake pads in the support bracket. Rotate the caliper assembly over the rotor into position on the support bracket. Make sure the brake pads are installed correctly.
  3. Remove the residue from the rear brake pin retainer bolt threads and apply one drop of a suitable threadlock sealer. Install and tighten the disc brake caliper locating pin to 23-25 ft. lbs. (31-34 Nm).
  4. Attach the cable end to the parking brake lever. Install the cable retaining clip on the caliper assembly. Position the brake flex hose and bracket assembly to the side rail, and install the retaining screw. Tighten to 8-11 ft. lbs. (11-16 Nm).
  5. Install the wheel and tire, then lower the vehicle. Pump the brake pedal several times prior to moving the vehicle, to position the brake pads to the rotor.
  6. Refill the master cylinder reservoir if necessary, using only clean DOT 3 or equivalent brake fluid from a closed container.
  7. Road test the vehicle and check the brake system for proper operation.

INSPECTION



See Figure 22



Click image to see an enlarged view

Fig. Fig. 22: Measure brake pad thickness in several places around the pad with a ruler or Vernier caliper

Inspect the brake pads for wear using a ruler or Vernier caliper. Compare measurements to the brake specifications chart. If the lining is thinner than specification or there is evidence of the lining being contaminated by brake fluid or oil, make the necessary repairs and replace all brake pad assemblies (a complete axle set).

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Disc brakes provide superior braking performance over drum brakes.

  • Loosen the lug nuts on the rear wheels of the Taurus with the tire iron or lug wrench from the Ford tire maintenance kit.

  • Place the lifting jack beneath the frame of the Ford, near the rear tires. Lift the vehicle and place two jack stands under the frame for support.

  • Remove the lugs and pull the rear wheels/tires from the Taurus.

  • Remove the caliper pins with a 13 mm wrench. Wipe the brake grease from the pins with a paper or cloth towel.

  • Pull the rotors from the rear hubs of the Ford. Spray chain lubricant on the backside of the discs if the rotors are not easily removed by hand.

  • Clean the replacement rotors with brake parts cleaner and place them onto the wheel hubs. The concave side of the disc should face the Taurus wheel-well as you slide the rotor onto the wheel bolts.

  • Remove the brake pads from the caliper with a flat screwdriver or pry tool. The pads are fixed to the caliper by metal clips on the backs of the pads.

  • Squeeze the caliper pistons with vise-grip pliers to force them into the sides of the caliper.

  • Apply brake grease to the back panel of the new brake pads and clip them to the caliper.


  • Place the caliper with new brake pads onto the new rotor. Replace the caliper pins with the 13 mm wrench.

  • Return the wheels/tires to the rear wheel bolts and screw on the lug nuts by hand.

  • Remove the jack stands from beneath the Taurus' frame and lower the vehicle's back end to the ground.

  • Tighten the lug nuts with the tire iron or lug wrench.


    After replacing rear disc brake,

  • Bleed Rear Disc Brakes in a 1996 Ford Taurus


  • Raise the Taurus's passenger rear wheel off the ground with a jack. Place a jack stand under the vehicle's pinch weld located about four inches from the wheel well toward the center of the vehicle along the seam. Remove the tire by using the lug wrench to loosen and remove the lug bolts.

  • Locate the bleed screw. On drum brakes, the screw is on the back side of the drum just above the axle. On disc brakes, it is on top of the caliper. Loosen the screw sufficiently with a wrench so it is easy to loosen and tighten rapidly. However, don't leave it so loose that fluid drips out.

  • Attach the rubber tubing to the bleed screw. Submerge the other end of the tubing into a clear plastic bottle partially filled with brake fluid.

  • Raise the hood of the vehicle. Locate the brake fluid reservoir. Clean the top of the reservoir and remove the top. Set it aside. Fill the reservoir to the fill line. While bleeding the brakes, make sure the reservoir does not drop below half-full. Fill the reservoir as necessary. Once you complete the process, top off the reservoir and replace the cap.

  • Have an assistant depress the brake pedal firmly and hold it in position. Loosen the bleed screw for a few seconds, and watch for air bubbles in the plastic container. When the flow into the plastic container stops, tighten the bleed screw and have the assistant release the pedal. Repeat this process until no air bubbles come out of the tube. Repeat the process three more times. Completely tighten the bleed screw.

  • Replace the tire and lug nuts. Raise the vehicle with the jack to remove the jack stands. Lower the vehicle to the ground with the jack. Tighten the lug nuts to factory specifications.

  • Repeat steps one through six for the driver rear brake, then the passenger front brake and then the driver front brake. Even if your rear brakes are the only ones that need bleeding, failing to bleed all four can result in air bubbles in the line. Check the brake fluid level in the reservoir, and fill it as necessary with DOT-3 brake fluid. Replace the cap on the reservoir. Test your brakes.


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