Monday, September 19, 2011

how to replace cv joints on 1989 GMC S15 Sierra?

Halfshafts (Drive Axle) REMOVAL & INSTALLATION CV-JOINT OVERHAUL:--


READ THE PROCEDURE BELOW WITH DIAGRAMS:---

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1 through 11



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Fig. Fig. 1: Exploded view of common front drive axle mounting



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Fig. Fig. 2: A torn CV-boot requires removal of the driveshaft for overhaul



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Fig. Fig. 3: On most vehicles. the caliper should be removed and supported out of the way



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Fig. Fig. 4: Also on most vehicles, the tie rod end should be separated from the steering knuckle



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Fig. Fig. 5: Once the lower shock fasteners are removed it may be compressed and wired up out of the way



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Fig. Fig. 6: Loosen and remove the flange bolts



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Fig. Fig. 7: Remove the cotter pin and retainer so the axle nut may be loosened



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Fig. Fig. 8: A prybar may be used across to of the lug nuts in order to keep the hub from turning while loosening the nut



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Fig. Fig. 9: Use a suitable axle shaft removal tool to drive the shaft from the hub



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Fig. Fig. 10: If a driver tool is not available, thread the nut just flush with the shaft end and tab gently with a rubber or brass mallet



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Fig. Fig. 11: During assembly, hold the hub from turning and torque the axle nut to specification

Vehicles Through 1201
EXCEPT MFI-TURBO
  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Unlock the steering column so the linkage is free to move, then raise and support the front of the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  3. Remove the tire and wheel assembly.
  4. Remove brake caliper from the bracket and support out of the way using safety wire. Be careful not to stretch, kink or otherwise damage the brake line.
  5. Disengage the tie rod at the steering knuckle. For details, please refer to Chapter 8 of this manual.
  6. Remove the lower shock absorber retainers, then push the shock out of the way. If necessary, compress the shock and secure it using safety wire.
  7. Matchmark the inner shaft flange, then loosen and remove the retaining bolts. If necessary, hold the axle from turning by installing 2 of the lug nuts and using a prybar across the nuts on the hub.
  8. Remove the cotter pin and retainer from the hub end of the shaft. Hold the hub from turning and loosen the axle nut. Once the nut is loosened unthread it and remove the washer.
  9. Move the inside of the drive axle forward and support it away from the frame.
  10. Using a suitable axle remover such as J-28733 or equivalent, drive the axle shaft from the hub.
  11. Remove the axle from the vehicle. If the boots are not being serviced, take care not to damage or rip the CV-boots during removal.

To install:
  1. Install the axle to the vehicle taking care not to damage the CV-boots. Insert the shaft end into the hub.
  2. Install the washer and retaining nut, then tighten the nut to 160-200 ft. lbs. (220-270 Nm).
  3. Install the retainer and a new cotter pin over the axle nut. DO NOT back off or exceed specification in order to insert the cotter pin.
  4. Align the hub flange, then install the retaining bolts and tighten to 60 ft. lbs. (80 Nm).
  5. Reposition the shock absorber and secure using the retaining bolts.
  6. Install the tie rod end to the steering knuckle and secure.
  7. Remove the support, then install the brake caliper.
  8. Install the tire and wheel assembly.
  9. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  10. Make sure the ignition is OFF , then connect the negative battery cable.

MFI-TURBO
  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Unlock the steering column so the linkage is free to move, then raise and support the front of the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  3. Remove the tire and wheel assembly.
  4. Remove the cotter pin and retainer from the hub end of the axle shaft.
  5. Hold the hub from turning and loosen the axle nut. Once the nut is loosened unthread it and remove the washer. The hub may be held by installing 2 lug nuts and using a large prybar.
  6. Place a jackstand or a floor jack under the lower control arm for support.
  7. Remove the lower shock absorber retainers, then reposition the shock for access.
  8. Matchmark the output shaft flange, then remove the output shaft flange-to-drive axle bolts. If necessary, hold the hub from turning using the prybar or insert a drift through the opening in the top of the brake caliper into the vanes of the rotor.
  9. Using a axle driver/removal tools such as the Posilock Puller Model 110, or equivalent, drive the axle shaft from the hub.
  10. Remove the drive axle from the vehicle. If the boots are not being serviced, take care not to damage or rip the CV-boots during removal.

To install:
  1. Install the axle to the vehicle taking care not to damage the CV-boots. Insert the shaft end into the hub.
  2. Install the washer and retaining nut, then tighten the nut to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm).
  3. Install the retainer and a new cotter pin over the axle nut. If necessary, tighten the nut additionally in order to insert the cotter pin, but DO NOT back off specification.
  4. Align the hub flange, then install the retaining bolts and tighten to 59 ft. lbs. (80 Nm).
  5. Reposition the shock absorber and secure using the retaining bolts.
  6. Install the tire and wheel assembly.
  7. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  8. Make sure the ignition is OFF , then connect the negative battery cable.

1202-93 Vehicles
EXCEPT MFI-TURBO

See Figure 12

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Unlock the steering column so the linkage is free to move, then raise and support the front of the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  3. If equipped, remove the front skid plate for access
  4. Remove the tire and wheel assembly.
  5. Insert a drift through the brake caliper into one of the brake rotor vanes to prevent the drive axle from turning.
  6. Remove the cotter pin and retainer from the hub end of the shaft. Hold the hub from turning and loosen the axle nut. Once the nut is loosened unthread it and remove the washer.
  7. Matchmark the inner shaft flange, then loosen (but DO NOT remove) the bolts retaining the inner joint flange to the output shaft companion flange.
  8. Remove the brake line support bracket from the upper control arm in order to allow for additional knuckle travel. If necessary, remove the brake caliper and support aside.
  9. Remove the cotter pin and nut from the outer tie rod end, then disengage the tie rod at the steering knuckle using J-24319-B, or an equivalent jawed tie rod puller. Push the linkage out toward the opposite side of the vehicle, then support the outer tie rod out of the way to provide the necessary clearance for shaft removal.
  10. Remove the lower shock absorber retainers, then compress the shock and secure it out of the way using safety wire.
  11. Position a jackstand between the spring seat and lower control arm ball joint for maximum leverage, then use the vehicle's weight to relieve the spring tension on the upper control arm.
  12. Remove the cotter pin and retainer, then loosen and remove the upper ball joint stud nut away from the knuckle. Tip the knuckle out and toward the rear of the vehicle. Suspend the knuckle from the upper control arm or frame in order to prevent straining and damaging the brake line.
  13. Using a suitable axle remover such as J-28733-B or equivalent, drive the axle shaft from the hub.
  14. Remove the inboard flange bolts which were removed earlier.



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Fig. Fig. 12: Once the upper ball joint is disconnected, support the knuckle from the upper control arm or frame to prevent damage to the brake line and/or lower ball joint

  1. Remove the axle from the vehicle. If the boots are not being serviced, take care not to damage or rip the CV-boots during removal.


CAUTION
DO NOT allow the vehicle's weight to load the front wheels or attempt to operate the vehicle when the drive axle(s) or hub nut(s) are removed. To do so may cause the front wheel bearing inner races to separate resulting in damage to the front brake and suspension components and/or personal injury.

To install:
  1. Prior to shaft installation, cover the shock mounting bracket, lower control arm ball stud and ALL other sharp edges with a cloth or rag to help protect the boot.
  2. Install the axle to the vehicle taking care not to damage the CV-boots. Insert the shaft end into the hub making sure to properly align the shaft splines.
  3. Install the washer and retaining nut, if the nut can be fully threaded, it may be used to help draw the shaft into position in the hub.
  4. Align the inboard flange to the output shaft companion flange, then loosely install the retainers.

Neither the flange retainers or the axle end nut should be fully tightened at this time. Thread the retainers to hold the axle shaft in position and reassemble the other components.

  1. Install the upper ball joint to the steering knuckle, then install the nut and tighten to 61 ft. lbs. (83 Nm). Install a new cotter pin, but DO NOT back of the specified torque. Lube the ball joint until grease appears at the seals, then remove the support from underneath the lower control arm.
  2. Reposition and secure the lower shock absorber fasteners. Tighten the nut and bolt to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  3. Install the tie rod end to the steering knuckle, then tighten the nut to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm). Align the cotter pin hole by rotating the retainer, DO NOT back off the specified torque OR exceed specification in order to install the cotter pin. Install the new cotter pin once the retainer is aligned.
  4. Install the brake line support bracket and tighten the retainer(s) to 13 ft. lbs. (17 Nm). Make sure the brake hose is not twisted, kinked or otherwise damaged before securing the bracket.
  5. Insert a drift through the brake caliper to prevent the drive axle from turning, then tighten the inboard flange bolts to 60 ft. lbs. (80 Nm).
  6. Tighten the hub nut on the end of the axle to 180 ft. lbs. (245 Nm), then install the retainer and a new cotter pin. Rotate the retainer, as necessary to install the cotter pin. DO NOT back off or exceed specification to install the cotter pin.
  7. If removed, reposition and secure the caliper.
  8. Install the tire and wheel assembly.
  9. If applicable, install the skid plate.
  10. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  11. Make sure the ignition is OFF , then connect the negative battery cable.

CV-JOINT OVERHAUL



See Figure 13

Outer CV-Joint

See Figures 14 through 23

  1. Remove the drive axle from the vehicle.
  2. Place the axle in a vise using a protective covering on the vise jaws to prevent axle damage.


CAUTION
Because the retaining clamps are under tension, use care when cutting and removing them. Wear gloves and safety goggles to protect you should the clamp spring loose upon releasing the tension.

  1. Cut and remove the CV-boot retaining clamps. If the boot is not being replaced, use care not to cut or damage the boot.

Some late-model vehicles are equipped with a swage ring. In order to remove the ring, use a hand grinder to cut through the ring. Take care not to damage the outer race while cutting the swage ring free.

  1. Once the clamps are removed, reposition the boot and wipe the grease away in order to locate the snapring.



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Fig. Fig. 13: Exploded view of the drive axle and CV-joints



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Fig. Fig. 14: Aligning the cage windows with the outer race lands so the cage (and inner race) may be removed



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Fig. Fig. 15: Rotating the inner race up and out of the cage



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Fig. Fig. 16: Small retaining clamp installation and ear dimension



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Fig. Fig. 17: Large retaining clamp installation and ear dimension-outer joint shown (inner joint uses same dimension)



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Fig. Fig. 18: Before removal check the CV-boot for wear or damage



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Fig. Fig. 19: In most cases, use a pair of side cutters to release clamp tension-inner band shown



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Fig. Fig. 20: Remove the outer band from the CV-boot once the clamp tension has been released



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Fig. Fig. 21: Clean the CV-joint housing prior to removing the boot, but be careful not to damage the boot



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Fig. Fig. 22: With the clamps removed, carefully pull the CV-boot from the joint housing



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Fig. Fig. 23: Pull the housing from the spider and shaft assembly-inner joint shown

  1. Remove the snapring using a suitable pair of snapring pliers, such as J-8059 or equivalent.
  2. Remove the joint assembly from the axle shaft.
  3. Using a brass drift and hammer, tap the cage until it tilts sufficiently to remove the first ball, remove the remaining balls in the same manner.
  4. Pivot the cage so the inner race is 90 degrees to the centerline of the outer race, then align the cage windows with the outer race lands and lift the cage (along with the inner race) from the outer race. Please refer to the illustration for clarification.
  5. Rotate the inner race up and out of the cage.
  6. Thoroughly clean all parts in an approved solvent, then check for wear or damage and replaces, as necessary.

To install:
  1. Apply a suitable grease to the ball grooves of the inner and outer races.
  2. Install the inner race to the cage by inserting and rotating.
  3. Align the cage windows with the outer race lands, then install the cage (along with the inner race) to the outer race. Make sure the retaining ring side of the inner race faces outward.
  4. Use the brass drift to tap the cage to a tilted position, then install the balls.
  5. Pack the joint using a suitable grease.
  6. Position the small boot clamp onto the outboard boot, then install the boot the axle shaft. Tighten the small clamp securely using a suitable clamp tool such as J-35910 or equivalent. If the tool has a torque wrench fitting, secure the clamp using 21 ft. lbs. (136 Nm) of torque.
  7. Check the clamp ear gap dimension (distance that the inner bends of the crimp should be from each other), it should be a maximum of 0.085 in. (2.15mm). Please refer to the illustration for clarification.
  8. Install the joint assembly to the shaft and secure using the snapring. Pack the boot and outer joint assembly with the premeasured amount of the grease supplied with the service kit, then snap the boot onto the outer joint assembly and manipulate it to remove excess air.
  9. Install the large retaining clamp using the clamp tool and torque wrench. Secure the clamp using 130 ft. lbs. (176 Nm) of torque. Again, check the clamp ear dimension, it should be a maximum of 0.23 in. (2.60mm)
  10. Install the drive axle to the vehicle.

Inner CV-Joint

See Figures 16 through 31

  1. Remove the drive axle from the vehicle.
  2. Place the axle in a vise using a protective covering on the vise jaws to prevent axle damage.


CAUTION
Because the retaining clamps are under tension, use care when cutting and removing them. Wear gloves and safety goggles to protect you should the clamp spring loose upon releasing the tension.

  1. Cut and remove the CV-boot retaining clamps. If the boot is not being replaced, use care not to cut or damage the boot.

Some late-model vehicles are equipped with a swage ring. In order to remove the ring, use a hand grinder to cut through the ring. Take care not to damage the outer race while cutting the swage ring free.

  1. Remove the axle shaft with spider assembly from the housing.

Handle the spider assembly with care. The tripot needle rollers may separate from the spider trunions.

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Fig. Fig. 24: Snapring and spider removal



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Fig. Fig. 25: Proper inboard boot and housing positioning



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Fig. Fig. 26: On the inner CV-joint, be careful not to loose the spider assembly components



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Fig. Fig. 27: Remove the CV-joint housing and check for wear or damage



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Fig. Fig. 28: With the spacer and spider pushed back, grasp the snapring using a pair of snapring pliers



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Fig. Fig. 29: Remove the snapring from the shaft so the spider assembly may be removed



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Fig. Fig. 30: With the snapring removed, the spider is free to be pulled from the shaft



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Fig. Fig. 31: If necessary, remove the spacer ring from the shaft

  1. Grasp the space ring using J-8059, or an equivalent pair of snapring pliers, then slide the ring back on the axle shaft in order to provide clearance to move the spider assembly.
  2. Move the spider assembly back on the shaft in order to expose the retaining snapring.
  3. Remove the snapring using a suitable pair of snapring pliers, such as J-8059 or equivalent.
  4. Remove the spider assembly.
  5. Thoroughly clean all grease from the housing. Check for rust at the boot mounting grooves, if found remove with a wire brush.

To install:
  1. Install the small boot clamp and inboard boot to the axle shaft.
  2. If the spacer ring was removed, make sure it is positioned up on the shaft leaving room for spider and snapring installation.
  3. Install the spider assembly to the axle shaft, making sure the snapring counterbore faces the housing end of the axle.
  4. Install the snapring to the shaft, then properly position the spider and space ring.
  5. Position the small boot clamp and tighten securely using a suitable clamp tool such as J-35910 or equivalent. If the tool has a torque wrench fitting, secure the clamp using 21 ft. lbs. (136 Nm) of torque.
  6. Check the clamp ear gap dimension (distance that the inner bends of the crimp should be from each other), it should be a maximum of 0.085 in. (2.15mm). Please refer to the illustration for clarification.
  7. Repack the housing using about half of the premeasured grease supplied with the service kit, then place the remainder of grease in the boot. Coat the inside of the boot sealing lips with grease.
  8. Make sure the joint/boot are assembled to the proper dimension of 6 1 / 4in. (160mm) between the clamps. Please refer to the illustration for clarification.
  9. Install the large retaining clamp using the clamp tool and torque wrench. Secure the clamp using 130 ft. lbs. (176 Nm) of torque. Again, check the clamp ear dimension, it should be a maximum of 0.23 in. (2.60mm).
  10. Install the drive axle to the vehicle.


--------------

Transfer Case




REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4


  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Shift the transfer case into the 4wd High range.
  3. Raise and support the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  4. If equipped, remove the skid plate bolts and remove the skid plate from under the transmission/transfer case assembly.
  5. On Model 231 transfer cases, remove the plug and drain the transfer case fluid.



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Fig. Fig. 1: It is recommended that the fluid be drained from most transfer cases before removal



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Fig. Fig. 2: During installation, remember to remove the filler plug to check the level and, if necessary, add fluid

  1. Matchmark and remove the front and rear driveshafts from the transfer case.
  2. Disconnect the speedometer cable(s), the vacuum harness and/or the electrical connectors, as necessary.
  3. Disconnect the shift linkage from the case. If necessary for access from above, remove the center console from the vehicle.
  4. Remove the catalytic converter front bracket bolts, then loosen the front converter clamp.
  5. Support the transmission using a floor jack, then remove the transmission rear mounting bolts.
  6. Carefully raise the transmission/transfer case assembly and remove the catalytic converter front bracket, then lower the assembly. Position a support (such as a jackstand) to keep the transmission in place.
  7. Reposition the floor jack to support the transfer case, then remove transfer case retaining bolts. On vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions, remove the bolts from the shift lever bracket and position the bracket aside. This will permit access to the upper left transfer case attaching bolt.
  8. Carefully lower the transfer case from the vehicle, then remove all traces of the old gasket from the mating surface.

To install:
  1. Use a new transfer case-to-transmission gasket and mount the unit to the transmission. Torque the bolts to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm).
  2. If removed, install the shift lever bracket bolts.
  3. Remove the floor jack from the transfer case, then reposition the jack under the transmission. Remove the transmission support.
  4. Raise the transmission/transfer case assembly in order to install the catalytic converter front hanger.
  5. Once the converter front bracket is positioned, lower the assembly and remove the floor jack. Secure the transmission rear mounting bolts and the converter front bracket bolts. Don't forget to tighten the converter clamp.
  6. Connect the transfer case shift linkage at the case, then check and adjust, as necessary. If removed, install the center console.
  7. Connect the speedometer cable(s), vacuum harness and/or electrical wiring, as necessary.
  8. Align and install the driveshafts.
  9. Make sure the truck is level, then remove the filler plug to check the transfer case fluid level. If necessary, add fluid, then install the plug. For details concerning fluid recommendations and level checking, please refer to Chapter 1 of this manual.
  10. If equipped, install the skid plate.
  11. If not done already, remove the jackstands and lower the vehicle.
  12. Connect the negative battery cable.



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Fig. Fig. 3: When equipped, the skid plate must be removed for access-late model shown



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Fig. Fig. 4: Common transfer case mounting to automatic and manual transmissions

1992-93 Vehicles
  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Shift the transfer case into the 4wd High range.
  3. Raise and support the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  4. If equipped, remove the skid plate bolts, then remove the skid plate from under the transmission/transfer case assembly.
  5. Remove the plug and drain the transfer case fluid.
  6. Matchmark and remove the front and rear driveshafts from the transfer case.
  7. Tag and disconnect the vacuum lines and/or the electrical connectors, as equipped.
  8. If applicable, disconnect the transfer case shift rod from the case.
  9. If applicable, remove the support brace-to-transfer case bolts.
  10. Support the transfer case using a floor jack, then remove the transfer case-to-transmission retaining bolts
  11. Slide the transfer case rearward and off the transmission output shaft, then careful lower it from the vehicle.
  12. Remove all traces of old gasket material from the mating surfaces.

To install:
  1. Using the floor jack, carefully raise the transfer case into position behind the transmission. Position a new gasket, using sealer to hold it in position, then slide the transfer case onto the transmission output shaft.
  2. Install the transfer case-to-transmission retaining bolts, then tighten to 24 ft. lbs. (33 Nm).
  3. If equipped, install the support brace bolts and tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (47 Nm).
  4. Remove the floor jack from the transfer case.
  5. If equipped, connect the shift rod to the case.
  6. Engage the vacuum lines and/or electrical connections, as necessary.
  7. Align and install the front and rear driveshafts.
  8. Make sure the truck is level, then properly refill the transfer case through the filler plug. For details, please refer to Chapter 1 of this manual.
  9. If equipped, install the skid plate.
  10. If not done already, remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.
  11. Connect the negative battery cable.


------------

Front Driveshaft and U-Joints



REMOVAL & INSTALLATION



Except MFI-Turbo

See Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4

DO NOT pound on the original driveshaft ears (unless the U-joints are being replaced) or the injected nylon U-joints may fracture.



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Fig. Fig. 1: Common early model front driveline assembly



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Fig. Fig. 2: Late model front driveline assembly

  1. Raise and support the front of the truck safely using jackstands.
  2. Matchmark the relationship of the driveshaft to the front axle and the transfer case flanges.
  3. Remove the driveshaft-to-retainer bolts and the retainers, first from the transfer case, then from the front axle.
  4. Collapse the driveshaft so it may be disengaged from the transfer case flange.
  5. Move the driveshaft rearward (between the transfer case and the chassis) to disengage it from the front axle.

Use care when handling the driveshaft to avoid dropping the U-joint cap assemblies and loosing portions of the bearing assemblies.

  1. Wrap a length of tape around the loose caps to hold them in place.

To install:
  1. Carefully insert the driveshaft into position in the vehicle.
  2. Align the matchmarks made earlier, then remove the tape from the U-joints cap assemblies and position them to the flanges. Loosely install the retainers to hold the shaft in position.
  3. Verify that the marks are properly aligned then tighten the retainers to 15 ft. lbs. (20 Nm) for vehicles through 1991 or to 92 ft. lbs. (125 Nm) for the transfer case flange bolts and to 53 ft. lbs. (72 Nm) for front axle flange bolts on 1992-93 vehicles.
  4. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.



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Fig. Fig. 3: Loosen and remove the U-joint retainers from the flanges



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Fig. Fig. 4: Tape the U-joint cap assemblies to prevent the possible loss of components

MFI-Turbo

See Figure 5

  1. Raise and support the front of the vehicle safely using jackstands.
  2. Remove the retaining bolts from the flange at the transfer case.
  3. Remove the retaining bolts from the flange at the front axle.
  4. Pull the axle forward and downward, then remove it from the vehicle.



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Fig. Fig. 5: Front axle and driveline assembly-MFI-Turbo

To install:
  1. Inspect the shroud and boot for cracking or deterioration. Replace the entire assembly if evidence of damage is found. Also, check the front shaft for dents or bending.
  2. Carefully install the shaft to the vehicle while aligning the matchmarks made during removal. Loosely install the retaining bolts to hold the shaft in position.
  3. Tighten the transfer case flange bolts, followed by the axle flange bolts to 52 ft. lbs. (70 Nm).
  4. Remove the jackstands and carefully lower the vehicle.

U-JOINT REPLACEMENT 1 / 4 in. socket as opposed to the 1 1 / 8 in. socket used by later models and most rear driveshafts.



With the exception of the size socket/pipe which must be used to support the trunnion yoke on some earlier model driveshafts, U-joint replacement is identical between the front and rear driveshaft assemblies. Please refer to the procedure found later for the rear driveshaft to service the U-joints. Make sure an appropriately sized socket is used as a support on early model front driveshafts, these will require a 1


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